Nutrition Worksheets

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created 6 years ago by Candice_Hebert
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updated 6 years ago by Candice_Hebert
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1

function of upper esophageal sphincter

open/close entrance to esophagus

2

function of cardiac sphincter

open/close entrance between esophagus and stomach

3

function of pyloric sphincter

open/close at bottom of the stomach to let food into small intestines. allows a few mls at a time so SI can neutralize the stomach acid with bicarbonate to decrease injury to SI and because SI enzymes needs neutral pH

4

function of ileocecal sphincter

located between end of ileum and cecum. prevents backflow of colon contents into SI

5

function of anal sphincter

control of defacation

6

what precursor molecule does pepsin come from and what type of cell makes this precursor?

pepsin comes from pepsinogen and is secreted by chief cells. exocrine signaling

7

what parameter limits pepsins function?

pepsin is pH sensitive. Activated at low pH, high pH inactive.

8

which hormone is secreted by thoughts of food and food in the stomach?

gastrin

9

what is gastrin secreted from?

the pyloric region of the stomach and duodenum

10

acid and protease production in the stomach is stimulated by what hormone?

gastrin

11

which hormone is secreted in response to acid chyme and protein digested in the duodenum?

secretin

12

where is secretin secreted from?

duodenum and jejunum

13

what does secretin stimulate the pancreas to produce and secrete?

NaHCO3

14

fats and protein in duodenum stimulates this hormone

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

15

where is CCK secreted from?

duodenum and jejunum

16

what hormone stimulates the flow of bile and pancreatic fluids into the duodenum?

CCK

17

what receptors attract us to carbs and salt?

salt and sweet

18

what receptors repel us from toxins?

bitter

19

receptors that repel us from acidic/fermented food?

sour

20

receptors attract us to protein?

umami

21

umami receptors detect which AA? and name the stable form of the AA.

glutamate and stable form is MSG

22

how is surface area increased in the small intestines?

microvilli and villi increase surface area for absorption by 600x

23

How much energy do carbs supply?

4 kcal/g

24

How much energy do proteins supply?

4 g/kcal

25

How much energy does alcohol supply?

7 kcal/g

26

How much energy do fats supply?

9 kcal/g

27

which molecule links TCA cycle with gluconeogenesis?

oxaloacetate

28

Fiber is made of _____ linkages that point _______and are not able to be digested by humans

Beta, upward

29

starch and glycogen have ________ linkages that point _________ and are able to be digested

alpha, downward

30

In the disease PKU, the enzyme ___________________________ is missing or reduced. This decreases the amount of the amino acid ____________________ causing it to become a(n) ___________________ amino acid. It also causes a build-up of the amino acid __________________________which results in the removal of its ________ in a _________________________________ reaction converting it into _______________. If left untreated it can cause mental retardation because accumulation of __________________ blocks other amino acids from crossing the _________________________.

phenylalanine hydroxylase. tyrosine. essential. phenylalanine. NH2. transamination. Phenylpyruvate. phenylalanine. blood brain barrier

31

what food can PKU people not eat?

aspartame

32

monosaccharides of maltose

2 glucose molecules

33

monosaccharides of lactose

glucose and galactose

34

monosaccharides of sucrose

fructose and glucose

35

monosaccharides of raffinose

glucose, fructose, and galactose

36

What are the benefits of carbohydrates?

  • Support glycogen reserves in muscle
  • Support glycogen reserves in liver (needed from brain metabolism)
  • Protects against ketosis and protein loss
  • Provides fiber
37

benefits of soluble fiber

  • Binds glucose so slows glucose absorption & reduces risk of diabetes
  • Binds cholesterol and bile which increases their excretion & reduces risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Reduces appetite & reduces risk of obesity
  • Feeds microbiota of colon & supports GI track and immune system and suppresses inflammation
  • Lowers risk of breast cancer
  • Decreases Asthma
  • Decreases mortality rates
  • Helps prevent Crohn’s disease
38

how are calcium and fiber related?

Cell injury caused by fiber leads to Ca++ influx. The Ca++ causes the mucus filled vesicles inside the cell to come to the surface and fuse together to repair the plasma membrane. During the repair, the vesicles release their mucus into the lumen of the large intestine and helps decrease diverticulitis.

39

what does the microbiota in the colon ferment soluble fiber into and what are the benefits?

Soluble fiber is fermented by the colonic bacteria into organic acids like butyric acid. Organic acids provide energy and carbons, and they also are used as signals to the GI track and body (signals can effect things like the immune system and mood)