Comm & Gender
"facts" of sex are thought to constitute natural differences between men and women. View heterosexuality as natural outcome of human sexual activity/ reproduction.
Biological (male, female. intersex, transsexual; based on genitalia, chromosomes, hormones).
Structure of social relations and social practices that create meaning around differences in sex and that provide normative assumption =s regarding the range of "masculine, and feminine behaviors.
is a sociological about how an individual can face multiple threats of discrimination when their identities overlap a number of minority classes, such as race, gender, age, ethnicity, health and other characteristics.
- Knowledge is socially situated
- Marginalized group are socially situated in ways that make it more possible for them to be aware of things than it is for the non-marginalized
- Research focused on power relations begin with the lives of the marginalized.
Waves of Feminism
- women could not get a divorce
- women not allow to go to school
- no right for full citizenship
- man rape their wives
- Hold no name for their property.
Waves of Feminism Second Wave
- The feminist mistake
- No rights to follow their dreams/ do what they want
- women had to come together to be politically
- All women have nothing in common
- women likely to get paid less in work place,
Waves of Feminism Third Wave
- Makes change to the institution
- take things into account
- value of representation
- Change in sexual and ways of thinking
- Take the voices and put them out there.
- Feminism movement was really important
- Feminist is over
- The choices individuals made had a huge impact
- stay true to your roll as a woman and stay home
- if you are unhappy it's your fault you should do what makes you happy.
we learn about ourselves and others in conversation (conversation work, identity work, relationship work).
4 Critical Research Criteria for studying gender
- Use an Intersectional gender analysis to explore gender diversity, not sex difference only
- Gender should emerge in research, not be imposed by researcher
- Researchers must examine communication context physical, social, cultural, psychology
- Research should examine communication as strategic tool
Two Culture approach to gender comm research
Feminis style: "Rapport talk"
- relationship building
- Indirect communication
Masculine style : "Report Talk"
- Task orientation
- Asserting oneself/status
- Stories as Monologues, not as interaction
Critical Ethnographic Approach to Gender comm research
- Use intersectional frameworks
- Do not impose gender on people
- Attemp to understand social preferences and expectation
- View social behavior as always potentially political
gender Scheme theory
Two terms ought to be parallel concepts, but one is derogatory and the other is not
lots of words to describe something related to one group but not other groups.
example: Naming genitals in urban dictionary
using language to disempower
Boy vs Girl
Truncated passive Micro-aggression
passive verbs allow agent of action to be deleted