Hesi: Biology

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1

What is Biology?

The scientific study of life.

2

Science is a process. For an experiment to be performed, several steps must be taken.
What is the first step?

Hypothesis.
*This is simply a statement or explanation of certain events or happenings.

3

Science is a process. For an experiment to be performed, several steps must be taken.
What is the second step?

Experiment.
*This a repeatable procedure of gathering data to support or refute the hypothesis.

4

Science is a process. For an experiment to be performed, several steps must be taken.
What is the third & final step?

Conclusion
* The final proven outcome.

5

Information on Proteins

Proteins are the most significant contributor to cellular function.

6

What is the most significant contributor to cellular function?

A. Cell
B. Nucleus
C. Nucleic Acid
D. Proteins

D. Proteins

7

____ are polymers of 20 molecules called amino acids.

Proteins

8

Proteins are polymers of how many molecules called amino acids?

20

9

Proteins are polymers of 20 molecules and called ____.

amino acids

10

_____ are particular types of proteins that act to catalyze different reactions or processes.

Enzymes

11

Enzymes are particular types of proteins that act to do what?

Catalyze different reactions or processes in the cell.

12

______ _____ are components of the molecules of inheritance.

Nucleic acids

13

What is the abbreviation for Deoxribonucleic acid?

A. DRBA
B. DRA
C. DNA
D. DXRA

C. DNA

14

The ___ is the fundamental unit of biology.

cell

15

Cells consist of many components, what is another name for those components?

Organelles.

16

_________ cells are those containing no defined nucleus & a series of organelles that carry out the functions of the cell as directed by the nucleus.

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Prokaryotic

17

What cells have no defined nucleus?

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Prokaryotic

18

What cells have no defined nucleus and a series of organelles that carry out the functions, directed by the nucleus?

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Prokaryotic

19

______ cells have a membrane enclosed nucleus & a series of organelles that carry out functions of the cell as directed by the nucleus.

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Eukaryotic

20

What cells have a membrane enclosed nucleus & a series of organelles that carry out functions of the cell directed by the nucleus?

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Eukaryotic

21

Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic, which one is more complex?

Eukaryotic

22

Name eight MAJOR functioning organelles of the cell:

1. _____________________
2. _____________________
3. _____________________
4. _____________________
5. _____________________
6. _____________________
7. _____________________
8. _____________________

1. Nucleus
2. Ribosomes
3. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
4. Golgi Apparatus
5. Lysosomes
6. Vacuoles
7. Mitochondria/Chloroplasts(depends on which cell)
8. Cellular membrane

23

Nucleus contains _____.

DNA

24

Nucleus contains DNA of the cell in organized masses called_______.

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Chromosomes

25
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Chromosomes contain all the material for the

regeneration of the cell as well as all instructions.

26

What contains all the material for the regeneration of a cell?

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Chromosomes.

27

What contains all the instructions of a cell?

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Chromosomes.

28
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Ribosomes are organelles that read the

RNA produced in the nucleus & translate the genetic instructions to produce proteins.

29

What reads the RNA produced in the nucleus?

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Ribosomes

30

What translates the genetic instructions to produce proteins?

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Ribosomes

31

There are two locations ribosomes can be found. Where are the 'bound' ribosomes found?

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Rough ER

*Notice the ribosomes (purple dots) are bound to the outer layer of the Rough ER, giving it a rough texture.

32

There are two locations ribosomes can be found.
Where are the 'free' ribosomes found?

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In the cytoplasm.

33
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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

A membranous organelle found attached to the nuclear membrane & consists of two continuous parts.

34

What organelle is found attached to the nuclear membrane?

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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

35

The ER is made up of two parts; what are they?

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Rough ER & Smooth ER

36

Cells that have a high rate of protein synthesis generally have a large / small (choose one) number of ribosomes?

Large

37

Part of the ER is covered in ribosomes. What is the name of the ribosome covered ER?

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Rough ER

*Notice the purple dots, giving the rough ER a 'bumpy or lumpy' appearance.

38

What is the rough ER responsible for?

Protein synthesis & membrane production.

39

The other section of the ER lacks ribosomes, what is this section called?

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Smooth ER

*Notice the smooth ER has no protrusions, it's completely smooth.

40

What are the functions of the smooth ER?

Detoxification & metabolism of multiple molecules.

41

Detoxification & metabolism of multiple molecules are the functions of what part of the ER?

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Smooth ER

42

Inside the cell is a packaging, processing & shipping organelle. What is this organelle called?

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Golgi apparatus

43

The Golgi apparatus functions to transport

materials from the ER throughout the cell.

44

Where does intracellular digestion take place?

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Lysosomes

45

Lysosomes are packed with what enzyme?

hydrolytic

46

What can lysosomes hydrolyze?

Proteins, fats, sugars & nucleic acids.

47

What organelle hydrolyzes proteins, fats, sugars & nucleic acids?

Lysosomes

48

Vacuoles are a

membrane-enclosed structure that has various functions depending on cell type.

49

Many cells, through a process called phagocytosis, uptake food through the cell membrane creating a ___ vacuole.

food

50

Plant cells have a ____ vacuole that functions in storage, waste disposal, protection & hydrolysis.

central

51

Plant cells have a central vacuole that functions in what four categories?

Storage, waste disposal, protection and hydrolysis.

52

Mitochondria & Chloropasts are two distinct organelles that produce __________.

cell energy

53

Mitochondira are found in most _______ cells & are the site of respiration.

eukaryotic

54

Mitochondira are the site of ______.

respiration

55

Chloroplasts are found in _________.

plants

56

Chloroplasts are the site of ________.

photosynthesis

57

The cellular membrane is the _______ _______ component of the cell.

most important

58

The cellular membrane contributes to ___a_____, ________b____ & the ___c____ of a substances into & out of the cell.

a. protection

b. communication

c. passage

59

What does the bilayer of a cell membrane consist of?

1. phospholipids w/proteins

2. cholesterol

3. glycoproteins peppered throughout.

60

Phospholipids w/proteins, cholesterol and glycoprotein makeup what component of the cell?

Cellular membrane.

61

Cells reproduce by 3 different processes. Name those 3 processes.

Mitosis, Meiosis I and Meiosis II

62

All three of the reproduction categories of a cell fall into two categories. Name those 2 categories.

sexual & asexual

63

There are two types of asexual reproduction. What are they?

1. Binary fission
2. Mitosis

64

What is binary fission?

Process in which the chromosome binds to the plasma membrane, where it replicates.

65

What is mitosis?

The process of cell division which occurs in 5 stages before pinching in two, a process called cytokinesis.

66

In __________ reproduction, the offspring originates from a SINGLE cell, yielding all produced cells to be identical.

asexual

67

In _______ reproduction two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation.

sexual

68

The process that determines how reproductive cells divide in a sexually reproducing organism is called ______.

Meiosis

69

The first stage of Meiosis consists of four phases; name those four phases.

1. Prophase I

2. Metaphase I

3. Anaphase I

4. Telephase I & Cytokinesis.

70

The significant differences between Meiosis & Mitosis occur in which phase?

Prophase I

71

DNA

is the genetic material of a cell & is the vehicle of inheritance.