Zoology exam 6 study (1)

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Digestion and Nutrition
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1

An organism that utilizes inorganic (raw) compounds for energy and growth is known to be..

Autotrophic

2

True or false, Only Plants can be Autotrophic.

False, Plants and Animals can be autotrophic.

3

What are the two ways that Autotrophs can acquire energy?

  1. sun light (phototroph)
  2. Chemicals (Chemotroph)
4

A phototroph uses what to obtain energy.

Light and pigments

5

A chemotroph uses what to obtain energy.

inorganic chemical reactions.

6

Organisms that live in hydrothermal vents are known as what?

Chemotrophs

7

A vast majority of Animals are what?

Heterotrophic

8

Organisms that utilize already synthesized compounds for energy and growth.

Heterotrophs

9

What are the four types of Heterotrophs?

Carnivores

Herbivores

Omnivores

Saprophages

10

Most invertebrates feed on what?

Particulate matter

11

Feeding on particulate matter is known as what?

Suspension feeding

12

Describe the selectivity of Suspension feeding

It is non-selective

13

When invertebrates partake in suspension feeding, what are they eating?

Plankton

14

What do invertebrates use to entrap their food during suspension feeding?

Cilia and Pinnules made of mucus (can make a mucus net).

15

Name two types of suspension feeding.

  1. Filter feeding
  2. Deposit feeding
16

Describe the selectivity of Filter feeding.

Slective

17

Filter feeders are usually which type of Animals?

Free swimming or Floating Animals.

18

How do Organisms "select" their food during fliter feeding?

They Strain the water/food

19

What do invertebrates use to strain food?

Gill Rakers

20

What are the two types of filter feeding?

  1. Ram feeding
  2. Suction feeding
21

Also known as lunge feeding, is a method of feeding underwater in which the predator moves forward with its mouth open, engulfing the prey along with the water surrounding it

card image

Ram feeding

22

A method of ingesting a prey item in fluids by sucking the prey into the predator's mouth

Suction feeding

23

To feed on organic matter or detritus is called what?

Deposit feeding

24

In terms of feeding, no invertebrates have this.

true teeth

25

How do organisms feed on food masses?

They shred or tear their food

26

How do invertebrates feed on food masses if they have no teeth?

They have:

  • Chitinous Jaws
  • Radula
  • Beaks
27

True chewing is called what?

Mastication

28

Mastication is a Phenomenon akin to only which organisms?

Mammals

29

To Masticate, What is needed?

teeth

30

What is the purpose of having "specialized" teeth?

To achieve different functions to eat properly.

31

What are the four types of teeth that mammals have?

  • Incisors
  • Canines
  • Premolars
  • Molars
32

A narrow-edged tooth at the front of the mouth, adapted for cutting

Incisor

33

The piercing teeth between the incisors and premolars of a mammal, often greatly enlarged in carnivores

Canines

34

True or False, Cellulase is produced by Animals.

False, it is produced by microorganisms house in the guts of herbivores

35

What are the Three ways that the digestive process can take place?

  1. Intracellular
  2. Extracellular
  3. Both intracellular and Extracellular Digestion
36

Intracellular digestion means what?

It means that the digestive process occurs within the cell

37

Which two types of organisms undergo intracellular digestion

  1. single celled organisms
  2. Sponges
38

Why do sponges undergo intracellular digestion?

They do not have a digestive tract

39

How does intracellular digestion take place?

  1. Food particles are phagocytized (engulfed) by cells.
  2. Then a 'food vacuole' is formed
  3. The digestive process occurs by breaking down the food particles
  4. The particles will then be used by the cell or stored in the cell for energy
  5. Waste products are then fused with the plasma membrane and released via the process of exocytosis.
40

Which organisms undergo both intracellular and extracellular digestion?

  1. Cnidarians
  2. Flatworms
41

How does the use of both intracellular and extracellular digestion working together take place?

  • Organisms have a Lumen or cavity where enzymes are secreted
  • These enzymes break down food particles
  • These particles are then engulfed by cells and further digested intracellularly
42

Most Organisms have a true digestive tract (a complete gut tube), also know as what?

An Alimentary Canal

43

Extracellular digestion requires what?

A complete gut

44

Describe the process of Extracellular digestion.

  • First, Mechanical breakdown occurs in which food in torn or shredded into smaller pieces
  • Then, Chemical breakdown occurs to further process the food particles using enzymes and hydrolysis so that ther can be absorbed.
45

Chemical breakdown usually relies on what?

Enzymes and Hydrolysis.

46

How do animals move their food through their digestive system?

  • Cilia
  • Muscles
  • Or Both
47

The movement of food in an organism is dependent on what?

Their Body Plan

48

Examples of movement of food using muscles are what?

  • Segmentation
  • Peristalsis
49

Earthworms move their food through which process?

Segmentation

50

Describe the process of segmentation.

  • The muscles are contracted in series.
  • food moves further down as each segment of muscles contract.
51

Segmentation requires what?

Rings of smooth muscle.

52

How is food moved through the process of peristalsis?

card image

Through "waves" of contraction.

53

Describe the Organization of the Alimentary canal.

  1. Receiving
  2. Conduction
  3. Storage and early Digestion
54

Describe the receiving end of the alimentary Canal.

  • mouth-part (chitinous jaws, teeth, or beak).
  • The Mouth itself is the Buccal Cavity
  • The throat area is the pharynx
55

The mouth is also known as what?

The Buccal Cavity

56

The throat area of the receiving end of an alimentary canal is called what?

The Pharynx

57

Within the receiving area of the alimentary canal, which glands are located there?

Salivary glands

58

What kind of enzyme is secreted by the salivary glands in the receiving end of the Buccal cavity?

Amylase

59

What is Amylase responsible for breaking down?

Starch

60

Tetrapods have what?

Tongue

61

Which organ is responsible for the conduction of food?

The esophagus

62

What is the role of the Esophagus in the Alimentary canal?

It conducts the food into the lower part of the Alimentary canal

63

The stomach role in the alimentary canal is to do what?

To store and maintain the food long enough for digestion to occur.

64

Animals that do not have stomachs use what for storage of food?

A crop

65

Animals that do not have teeth or stomachs, but crops have which complementary organ?

A gizzard.

66

What is the purpose of the gizzard.

To grind food.

67

'Blind end' sacs also know as cecae, located behind the gizzard are called what?

Digestive Diverticula

68

Which two types of heterotrophs have a stomach?

  1. Carnivores
  2. Omnivores
69

Describe the stomach.

  • It is a J shaped tube with sphincters at the end (cardiac sphincter at the top, and pyloric sphincter at the bottom)
  • It is used for Digestion
  • Food is stored here
70

Which Sphincter is located at the top of the stomach?

Cardiac Sphincter

71

Which Sphincter is located at the bottom of the stomach?

Pyloric Sphincter

72

Strongly acidic liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach.

Gastric Juice

73

How many liters of gastric juice are secreted by the stomach per day?

2 liters

74

What does the gastric juice of the stomach contain?

  • Mucus
  • HCl
  • Pepsinogen
75

The mucus of the stomach is produced by what?

Goblet cells

76

HCl in the stomach is produced by what?

Pareital cells

77

Pepsinogen in the stomach is produced by what?

Chief cells.

78

Why is mucus important to the stomach?

It protects the lining of the stomach from the acid it produces.

79

The inactive precursor to pepsin, formed in the chief cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach and converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid during digestion

Pepsinogen

80

What is the role of pepsin?

it breaks down protein into smaller molecules.

81

Rennin is an enzyme produced by what?

The kidneys

82

Rennin is found in which type of Animals?

Ruminants

83

What is the role of Rennin in Ruminanats?

It is an enzyme curdles milk.

84

What enzyme do Herbivores use to break down plant material?

cellulase

85

True or False, Cellulase is produced by Animals.

False, it is produced by microorganisms house in the guts of microorganisms.

86

Where does terminal digestion take place?

The first part of the small intestine.

87

The first part of the small intestine is known as what?

The Duodenum

88

During terminal digestion 'Chyme' enters where?

The duodenum.

89

The semifluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach into the duodenum

Chyme

90

What are the 4 accessory organs that aid in the process of terminal digestion?

  1. Pancreas
  2. Gall Bladder
  3. Membrane Enzymes
  4. Liver
91

WHO AM I?

I AM;

  • An Alkaline solution
  • A very high pH that neutralizes the gastric acid in the chyme
  • Secreted by the pancreas

Pancreatic juice!

92

What are the four enzymes secreted by the pancreas?

  1. Trypsin
  2. Chymotrypsis
  3. Pancreatic Lipase
  4. Pancreatic Amylase
93

What is the role of Trypsin and Chymotrypsin?

To further digest proteins

94

What is the role of pancreatic lipase?

To hydrolyze (break down) fats into smaller molecules (glycerol).

95

What is the role of pancreatic amylase?

It breaks down starch.

96

What does the gall bladder secrete?

Bile

97

What is the composition of bile?

  • Bile salts
  • Bile pigments
98

What is the primary role of Bile?

Emulsifies fat

99

What is the role of Bile pigments?

They breakdown hemoglobin.

100

The cell membrane of the digestive tract help with what?

The release of other enzymes.

101

What is the purpose of the liver?

  • Converts sugar to Glycogen and stores it for energy
  • Detoxifies the waste material and chemicals in the blood (Ethanol, Medicine).
  • Destroys old Red Blood cells
102

Which organ plays a role in the absorption of nutrients?

The intestine

103

What does the intestine need for absorption?

A very high surface area.

104

How do earthworms increase the surface area of their intestine?

They use a typhlosole.

105

The intestinal lining of most vertebrates will have what?

Villi and microvilli

106

How does the liquid that passes through the intestine transport nutrients into the blood stream across the lumen (intestinal wall)?

Molucules are transported through Passive and Active transport.

107

Fat droplets that are emulsified are called what?

Micelles

108

What are fat droplets (micelles) absorbed by?

Lacteal of the lymphatic system

109

After micelles are absorbed by the lymphatic systems, where are they then drained?

Into the circulatory system at the thoracic duct

110

What takes place in the large intestine?

Most of the water is reabsorbed there.

111

How do we regained most of our water?

Through passive and active transport across the large intestine.

112

Our hunger center is located where?

In the Hypothalamus

113

The Hypothalamus is responsible for what?

Primal drive.

eg:

  • Hunger
  • Thirst
114

What regulates the Hypothalamus?

Glucose

115

How does glucose regulate the hypothalamus?

The drop in Glucose triggers the hormonal cascade for hunger drive

116

How many human adults are obese?

  • 2/3
  • 60-70%
117

How many children are obese?

  • 1/3
  • 30%
118

What are some of the reasons of obesity in America?

  • Technology
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Food is cheap
  • Food is highly processed
119

Why is Diet soda an issue?

When you drink it your body gets the feeling that it is drinking sugar, So our cells are expecting sugar but not receiving it, since the cells have no sugar to store, they increase their storing of glycogen, causing a risk of gaining more weight.

120

Brown found is found in which animals?

Placental mammals. (eg: Humans)

121

Brown fat has uncoupling proteins that does what?

Generate heat

122

What causes the increase of brown fat in human adults?

Hormone produced by the skeletal muscle

123

Leptin regulates what?

  • Fat storage
  • Appetite
  • Thermogenesis (Heat loss, Shivering, etc)
124

Leptin triggers what?

The hormone cascade in puberty

125

Digestion is regulated by what?

A hormone cascade.

126

Describe the regulation of digestion

  • Low blood sugar (glucose)=feeling hungry
  • Hypothalamus stimulates drive for food
  • Gastrin is released from the stomach
  • The stomach starts contracting and excreting more HCl,
  • Breaking down of pepsinogen occurs
  • We eat food and it is felt in the stomach
  • This causes the stomach to release more Gastrin
  • This increases Digestion
  • Food Goes in to the Pyloric sphincter
  • Chyme goes into the duodenum
  • This trigger a hormone (CCK) to be released. (responds to fat in food)
  • This immediately triggers Bile secretion (breaks down fat)
  • Enzymes in pancreas increase
  • The brain is signaled that we are full
  • Food in the Duodenum triggers secretin to be released
  • This neutralizes the stomach
  • The stomach in slowed down
  • Less Gastrin is produced