Zoology exam 6 study (1)
An organism that utilizes inorganic (raw) compounds for energy and growth is known to be..
True or false, Only Plants can be Autotrophic.
False, Plants and Animals can be autotrophic.
What are the two ways that Autotrophs can acquire energy?
- sun light (phototroph)
- Chemicals (Chemotroph)
A phototroph uses what to obtain energy.
Light and pigments
A chemotroph uses what to obtain energy.
inorganic chemical reactions.
Organisms that live in hydrothermal vents are known as what?
A vast majority of Animals are what?
Organisms that utilize already synthesized compounds for energy and growth.
What are the four types of Heterotrophs?
Most invertebrates feed on what?
Feeding on particulate matter is known as what?
Describe the selectivity of Suspension feeding
It is non-selective
When invertebrates partake in suspension feeding, what are they eating?
What do invertebrates use to entrap their food during suspension feeding?
Cilia and Pinnules made of mucus (can make a mucus net).
Name two types of suspension feeding.
- Filter feeding
- Deposit feeding
Describe the selectivity of Filter feeding.
Filter feeders are usually which type of Animals?
Free swimming or Floating Animals.
How do Organisms "select" their food during fliter feeding?
They Strain the water/food
What do invertebrates use to strain food?
What are the two types of filter feeding?
- Ram feeding
- Suction feeding
Also known as lunge feeding, is a method of feeding underwater in which the predator moves forward with its mouth open, engulfing the prey along with the water surrounding it
A method of ingesting a prey item in fluids by sucking the prey into the predator's mouth
To feed on organic matter or detritus is called what?
In terms of feeding, no invertebrates have this.
How do organisms feed on food masses?
They shred or tear their food
How do invertebrates feed on food masses if they have no teeth?
- Chitinous Jaws
True chewing is called what?
Mastication is a Phenomenon akin to only which organisms?
To Masticate, What is needed?
What is the purpose of having "specialized" teeth?
To achieve different functions to eat properly.
What are the four types of teeth that mammals have?
A narrow-edged tooth at the front of the mouth, adapted for cutting
The piercing teeth between the incisors and premolars of a mammal, often greatly enlarged in carnivores
True or False, Cellulase is produced by Animals.
False, it is produced by microorganisms house in the guts of herbivores
What are the Three ways that the digestive process can take place?
- Both intracellular and Extracellular Digestion
Intracellular digestion means what?
It means that the digestive process occurs within the cell
Which two types of organisms undergo intracellular digestion
- single celled organisms
Why do sponges undergo intracellular digestion?
They do not have a digestive tract
How does intracellular digestion take place?
- Food particles are phagocytized (engulfed) by cells.
- Then a 'food vacuole' is formed
- The digestive process occurs by breaking down the food particles
- The particles will then be used by the cell or stored in the cell for energy
- Waste products are then fused with the plasma membrane and released via the process of exocytosis.
Which organisms undergo both intracellular and extracellular digestion?
How does the use of both intracellular and extracellular digestion working together take place?
- Organisms have a Lumen or cavity where enzymes are secreted
- These enzymes break down food particles
- These particles are then engulfed by cells and further digested intracellularly
Most Organisms have a true digestive tract (a complete gut tube), also know as what?
An Alimentary Canal
Extracellular digestion requires what?
A complete gut
Describe the process of Extracellular digestion.
- First, Mechanical breakdown occurs in which food in torn or shredded into smaller pieces
- Then, Chemical breakdown occurs to further process the food particles using enzymes and hydrolysis so that ther can be absorbed.
Chemical breakdown usually relies on what?
Enzymes and Hydrolysis.
How do animals move their food through their digestive system?
- Or Both
The movement of food in an organism is dependent on what?
Their Body Plan
Examples of movement of food using muscles are what?
Earthworms move their food through which process?
Describe the process of segmentation.
- The muscles are contracted in series.
- food moves further down as each segment of muscles contract.
Segmentation requires what?
Rings of smooth muscle.
How is food moved through the process of peristalsis?
Through "waves" of contraction.
Describe the Organization of the Alimentary canal.
- Storage and early Digestion
Describe the receiving end of the alimentary Canal.
- mouth-part (chitinous jaws, teeth, or beak).
- The Mouth itself is the Buccal Cavity
- The throat area is the pharynx
The mouth is also known as what?
The Buccal Cavity
The throat area of the receiving end of an alimentary canal is called what?
Within the receiving area of the alimentary canal, which glands are located there?
What kind of enzyme is secreted by the salivary glands in the receiving end of the Buccal cavity?
What is Amylase responsible for breaking down?
Tetrapods have what?
Which organ is responsible for the conduction of food?
What is the role of the Esophagus in the Alimentary canal?
It conducts the food into the lower part of the Alimentary canal
The stomach role in the alimentary canal is to do what?
To store and maintain the food long enough for digestion to occur.
Animals that do not have stomachs use what for storage of food?
Animals that do not have teeth or stomachs, but crops have which complementary organ?
What is the purpose of the gizzard.
To grind food.
'Blind end' sacs also know as cecae, located behind the gizzard are called what?
Which two types of heterotrophs have a stomach?
Describe the stomach.
- It is a J shaped tube with sphincters at the end (cardiac sphincter at the top, and pyloric sphincter at the bottom)
- It is used for Digestion
- Food is stored here
Which Sphincter is located at the top of the stomach?
Which Sphincter is located at the bottom of the stomach?
Strongly acidic liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach.
How many liters of gastric juice are secreted by the stomach per day?
What does the gastric juice of the stomach contain?
The mucus of the stomach is produced by what?
HCl in the stomach is produced by what?
Pepsinogen in the stomach is produced by what?
Why is mucus important to the stomach?
It protects the lining of the stomach from the acid it produces.
The inactive precursor to pepsin, formed in the chief cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach and converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid during digestion
What is the role of pepsin?
it breaks down protein into smaller molecules.
Rennin is an enzyme produced by what?
Rennin is found in which type of Animals?
What is the role of Rennin in Ruminanats?
It is an enzyme curdles milk.
What enzyme do Herbivores use to break down plant material?
True or False, Cellulase is produced by Animals.
False, it is produced by microorganisms house in the guts of microorganisms.
Where does terminal digestion take place?
The first part of the small intestine.
The first part of the small intestine is known as what?
During terminal digestion 'Chyme' enters where?
The semifluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
What are the 4 accessory organs that aid in the process of terminal digestion?
- Gall Bladder
- Membrane Enzymes
WHO AM I?
- An Alkaline solution
- A very high pH that neutralizes the gastric acid in the chyme
- Secreted by the pancreas
What are the four enzymes secreted by the pancreas?
- Pancreatic Lipase
- Pancreatic Amylase
What is the role of Trypsin and Chymotrypsin?
To further digest proteins
What is the role of pancreatic lipase?
To hydrolyze (break down) fats into smaller molecules (glycerol).
What is the role of pancreatic amylase?
It breaks down starch.
What does the gall bladder secrete?
What is the composition of bile?
- Bile salts
- Bile pigments
What is the primary role of Bile?
What is the role of Bile pigments?
They breakdown hemoglobin.
The cell membrane of the digestive tract help with what?
The release of other enzymes.
What is the purpose of the liver?
- Converts sugar to Glycogen and stores it for energy
- Detoxifies the waste material and chemicals in the blood (Ethanol, Medicine).
- Destroys old Red Blood cells
Which organ plays a role in the absorption of nutrients?
What does the intestine need for absorption?
A very high surface area.
How do earthworms increase the surface area of their intestine?
They use a typhlosole.
The intestinal lining of most vertebrates will have what?
Villi and microvilli
How does the liquid that passes through the intestine transport nutrients into the blood stream across the lumen (intestinal wall)?
Molucules are transported through Passive and Active transport.
Fat droplets that are emulsified are called what?
What are fat droplets (micelles) absorbed by?
Lacteal of the lymphatic system
After micelles are absorbed by the lymphatic systems, where are they then drained?
Into the circulatory system at the thoracic duct
What takes place in the large intestine?
Most of the water is reabsorbed there.
How do we regained most of our water?
Through passive and active transport across the large intestine.
Our hunger center is located where?
In the Hypothalamus
The Hypothalamus is responsible for what?
What regulates the Hypothalamus?
How does glucose regulate the hypothalamus?
The drop in Glucose triggers the hormonal cascade for hunger drive
How many human adults are obese?
How many children are obese?
What are some of the reasons of obesity in America?
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Food is cheap
- Food is highly processed
Why is Diet soda an issue?
When you drink it your body gets the feeling that it is drinking sugar, So our cells are expecting sugar but not receiving it, since the cells have no sugar to store, they increase their storing of glycogen, causing a risk of gaining more weight.
Brown found is found in which animals?
Placental mammals. (eg: Humans)
Brown fat has uncoupling proteins that does what?
What causes the increase of brown fat in human adults?
Hormone produced by the skeletal muscle
Leptin regulates what?
- Fat storage
- Thermogenesis (Heat loss, Shivering, etc)
Leptin triggers what?
The hormone cascade in puberty
Digestion is regulated by what?
A hormone cascade.
Describe the regulation of digestion
- Low blood sugar (glucose)=feeling hungry
- Hypothalamus stimulates drive for food
- Gastrin is released from the stomach
- The stomach starts contracting and excreting more HCl,
- Breaking down of pepsinogen occurs
- We eat food and it is felt in the stomach
- This causes the stomach to release more Gastrin
- This increases Digestion
- Food Goes in to the Pyloric sphincter
- Chyme goes into the duodenum
- This trigger a hormone (CCK) to be released. (responds to fat in food)
- This immediately triggers Bile secretion (breaks down fat)
- Enzymes in pancreas increase
- The brain is signaled that we are full
- Food in the Duodenum triggers secretin to be released
- This neutralizes the stomach
- The stomach in slowed down
- Less Gastrin is produced