Chapter 30

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Warren Burger (ANDERSON)

Warren Burger was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court that Nixon appointed after Earl Warren resigned. He was a strict constructionist, meaning he interpereted the Constitution narrowly and limited government intervention in people's private lives to sustain individual freedom. He was also more sympathetic to upholding presidential wishes than the Warren Court had been.

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Watergate (ANDERSON)

Watergate was the scandal that formed the basis for Nixon's impeachement and resignation from office. Nixon was accused of deliberately silencing of Vietnam War critics, sabotaging the Democratic Party, and accepting illicit campaign donations.

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Gerald Ford (ANDERSON)

He was made president after Nixon resigned in '74. He was unable to solve the difficulty of stagflation, the unprecedented combination of rising unemployment and inflation both. Although he attempted to restore the integrity of the president's office through new regulations on covert operations, the American people still remained disillusioned with the presidency.

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Jimmy Carter (ANDERSON)

He was a Democratic president elected in '76, and was unable to stop the growing stagflation and energy crises. His reformative measures on oil failed to decrease American independence on foreign oil, though some alternative energy and conservation laws were passed during his presidency. His presidency suffered a fatal blow after the capture of 66 Americans in the US Embassy in Teheran, Iran. These Americans were held hostage for over a year as a result of strained US/Iran relations.

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Ronald Reagan (VEERAMANI)

Ronald Reagan was a conservative president elected in 1980, whose election emphasized the Republican dominance in politics (with a large shift to the right for both parties). Reagan's administration accomplished "victory over inflation, deregulation of industry, a moratorium on social spending, enormous tax cuts, and a staggering federal budget deficit." (TAP 984)

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Sandra Day O'Connor (VEERAMANI)

Sandra Day O'Connor was the first female Supreme Court Justice, appointed by Ronald Reagan. She was known for her carefully researched opinions and was a practical conservative who sometimes sided with the liberal minority in the Supreme Court.

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Bakke decision (VEERAMANI)

The Bakke Decision was a ruling by the Supreme Court that deemed the minority applicant quota at professional schools unconstitutional.

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Affirmative Action (BHATIA)

A policy implemented in the 60s and 70s in universities, businesses,and other places to prevent prior discrimination against specific races, minorities and women. It was a measure taken to ensure equal opportunities in admission hiring, and promotions. This encouraged those who were constantly facing discrimination to seek jobs and resources.

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Three Mile Island (VEERAMANI)

The Three Mile Island was an island in the Susquehanna River (in southeast Pennsylvania). It was the site of a major nuclear accident on March 28, 1979, when radioactive material was released into the environment and forced the evacuation of thousands of residents of the area.

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Panama Canal Treaty (BHATIA)

President Carter's negotiation with Panama in 1977 that the US and Panama would have joint control over the canal until 2000 when Panama would have full control. However, this received objection from people such as Ronald Reagan and others and finally resulted in Senate ratifying the treaty.

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Camp David Accords (BHATIA)

The agreement signed by the Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat and Isreli's prime minister Menachem Begin after Presidetn Carter had invited them to Camp David, Maryland to help their political problems. This agreement had Egypt becoe the first Arab state to recognize Israel, under the condition if Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula.

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Iran Hostage Crisis (BHATIA)

After President Carter took the Shah of Iran to the United States for medical treatment, a crowd took more than 60 Americans working in the US Embassy in Iran hostage, demanding the return of the shah for trail.

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Christian Right (ANDERSON)

This was a new face of the Conservative party that supported Reagan's presidency. It was comprised of Evangelical and Fundamentalist Christians, who opposed sexual permissiveness, abortion, gay rights, and feminism, and wanted to restore Christian values to America. Leaders utilized mass mailing and television to galvanize support.

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Supply Side Economics (VEERAMANI)

Supply Side Economics is the business policy that states that financial success afforded to big businesses and wealthy individuals will transcend into success for small businesses and and the common consumers.

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SDI/Star Wars (BHATIA)

The project started by Reagan to implement lasers into space to destroy enemy missiles before they reach their destination. The Soviet Union had reacted to this with anger as it violated the Antiballistic Missile treaty and as a result, they began to make their own Star Wars technology.

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Iran Contra Scandal (BHATIA)

Reagan's dealings with the Nicaraguan rebels, known as the Contras, and Iran. The United States was supposed to be supplying weapons to Iran for thier war against Iraq,but also pressured Iran to release the American Hostages held in Lebanon. Also, the funds for the sales of the arms were going to secretly helping the Contras through legal and illegal means. Regan had also defied the War Powers Act by ignoring Congress's ban on funds to the Contras.

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Nuclear Freeze (VEERAMANI)

The Nuclear Freeze was a movement that beseeched the United States and Soviet Union to "adopt a mutual freeze on the testing, production, and deployment of nuclear weapons and of missiles, and new aircraft designed primarily to deliver nuclear weapons." (The American Peace Movements, David Adam)

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Phyllis Schafly (BHATIA)

A conservative Republican, Phyllis Schafly advocated for a more conservative stance on issues concerning women such as abortion, feminism, and the Equal Rights Amendment, as well as other issues.

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New Right (BHATIA)

The term for the active religious conservatives in government in the 1980s. The criticized feminism, abortion, and homosexuality. The promoted "family values" and a strong military.

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Forced Busing controversy (BHATIA)

The strategy used by the schooling systems in cities where de facto, or coincidental, segregation occurred. This meant that children of different neighborhoods would be bused together all across the city to distribute the diversity of the schools.

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Nixon Impeachment Hearings (BHATIA)

The hearings that were to be held after the Watergate Scandal in 1972. Nixon had been tried with many charges for impeachment, including the abuse of power. Before Nixon actually was tried, he resigned.

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Nixon Pardon (VEERAMANI)

The Nixon Pardon was President Gerald Ford's hugely unpopular decision to pardon Richard Nixon for his crimes in office. It occurred one month after Ford was put into office, and made an appearance in front of a House subcommittee to explain his decision.

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Carter Doctrine (BHATIA)

President Carter's claim that the Soviet Union was threatening oil supplies from the Middle East and that the United States was willing to use an means to stop outside forces from taking over the Persian Gulf.

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Moral Majority/Christian Coalition (BHATIA)

An orginization made by conservative minister Jerry Falwell in 1979 to combat "'left-wing, social-welfare bills,...pornography, homosexuality, [and] the advocacy of immorality in school textbooks'" (The American Promise 986).

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Reaganomics (VEERAMANI)

Reaganomics was the financial policy that marked the Reagan administration, namely, policies of tax cuts, low social program spending, and high defense spending.

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deregulation (VEERAMANI)

Deregulation describes a business market in which the government's role is lessened, and the actual market controls the market competitors, which encourages more direct competition between the participants.

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Yuppie comes from the phrase "young urban professional". It was used to group the type of young people with a well-paid professional job and a extravagant lifestyle.

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de-industrialization (VEERAMANI)

Deindustrialization occurred in the mid-1980s, where the service sector expanded (but paid lower wages) and many 'idustrial businesses' were moved abroad to take advantage of the lower wages in other countries or to be in proximity to foreign markets.

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trickle-down economics (BHATIA)

A theory stating that benifits given to businesses will benefirt those in smaller businesses and individuals,and gradually, the nation.

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Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS, was discovered in 1981. During the '80s, gay men were disproportionately affected; the epidemic helped to promote gay and lesbian rights activism.

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Grenada Invasion (VEERAMANI)

The Grenada Invasion (code name: Operation Urgent Fury) was a military attack on the Caribbean island of Grenada, which was prompted by a military coup that forced out the then-current government. It was a successful invasion, but was surrounded in controvery because of a number of things, namely, the US interference in Cuba and claims of Yankee Imperialism.

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Mikhail Gorbachev/Glasnost (BHATIA)

The New Soviet primer who sought change in the hostile relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. Gorbachev was able to introduce, a greater freedom of expression (aka: glasnost) and challenged Communist rule. Through this, the United States was able to re establish a better relationship with the Soviet Union.