Zoology exam 5 study (3)

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1

What are 5 adaptations for Hot Environments?

  • Prevention of Overheating and water loss are linked
  • Some organism become Fossorial (living underground)
  • Nocturnal
  • Thin, light, fur (Color and Weight)
  • Evaporative cooling
2

What are 2 adaptations for cold environments?

  • Decrease Conductance
  • Increase heat Production
3

Describe how organisms can decrease conductance for a cold environment adaptation.

  • Fur and Fat
  • Counter-current exchange
4

Describe how organisms increase heat production for a cold environment adaptation.

  • Shivering
  • Brown fat
  • Subnivian environments.
5

Describe brown fat.

  • It has a no Shivering Thermogenesis
  • Cells produce heat not ATP
6

Which 2 fishes are known to be Endothermic?

Sharks and Tuna

7

Describe the physiology of Endothermic fish.

They have counter-current exchange in muscles.

8

What are the three types of Adaptive Hypothermia.

  • Daily Torpa
  • Hibernation
  • Estivation
9

What are the three types of extracellular fluid.

Blood, Plasma, and interstitial fluid

10

Describe the percentage of fluid in the Human body.

  • 70% Water
  • 50% Cell
  • 15% interstitial
  • 5% plasma
11

Describe the tissue fluid of invertebrates with no circulatory system.

  • Salts
  • Protein
  • Phogocytic cells
12

Describe the fluid of invertebrates with an open circulatory system.

  • Hemolymph
13

Describe the composition of Mammalian blood.

  • 55% plasma; Mostly water
  • 45% cellular components
  • 33% Hb by weight; 280 molecules.
  • 10 milion Hb made per second
14

Describe the 4 steps of Hemostasis.

  1. The Vessel wall contracts
  2. Thromboplastin is released by tissue
  3. Prothrombin is catalyzed to become thrombin
  4. Fibronegen is catalyzed by thrombin to become fibrin
15

Describe an open circulatory system.

  • It consists of a Hemocoel that contains hemolymph.
  • The hemocoel has a large volume, low pressure and accessory hearts.
  • The open circulatory system is usually not for the transport of gas in most
16

Describe the closed circulatory system.

  • It consists of a heart, vessels, and Capillaries
  • It has a higher pressure
  • Fluid is lost to tissue space
  • The Fluid is regained by the lymphatic system.
17

Vertebrate circulation is tied to what?

Respiration

18

Describe the Circulation and Respiration in fishes.

  • It is a one way circuit
  • It undergoes respiration in the gills
19

Describe the circulation and respiration in salamanders.

The heart is partially separated and Respiration happens via the lungs and skin.

20

Describe the circulation and respiration in Mammals.

They have a separate pulmonary and systemic circuit

21

The blood in the right side of the heart is what? (oxygen)

Deoxygenated

22

Describe the movement of blood in the right side of the heart.

  • Comes in through the right atrium
  • through the AV valve
  • The triscuspid valve
  • Then the right ventricle
23

The blood in the left side of the heart is what? (oxygen)

Oxygenated

24

Describe the movement of blood in the left side of the heart.

  • Left Atrium
  • Left Av valve
  • Bicuspid valve
25

Myogenic Contraction is featured in which organisms?

Vertebrates and Molluscs.

26

Sinoatrial nodes can be found in which organisms?

Vertebrates

27

Neurogenic Contraction is featured in which organisms?

Crustaceans and Annelids

28

What is the Cardiac center in Vertebrates?

Medulla Oblongata

29

What is the contaction of the heart called?

Systole

30

What is the relaxation of the heart called?

Diastole

31

name the 5 types of blood vessels.

  1. Artery
  2. Arteriole
  3. Capillary
  4. Venule
  5. Vein
32

What is the purpose of the lymphatic system.

To drain interstitial spaces

33

The lymph nodes of the lymphatic system are meant to do what?

produce lymphocytes

34

What do the lymph nodes of the lymphatic system contain?

Macrophages

35

A form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin or outer integument of an organism rather than gills or lungs.

Cutaneous Respiration

36

The gills of an animal, most typically an amphibian, that are exposed to the environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits, as they are in most fishes

External gills

37

What do sea stars use for respiration

Dermal Papulae

38

What do Polychaets use for respiration?

Brachial Tufts, Parapodia

39

What do fish, Mollusc, and Arthropods use for Respiration?

Internal Gills

40

What do Insects use for respiration?

Trachael systems

41

Describe the characteristics of terrestrial respiration using lungs.

  • Most remain moist
  • They have a High surface Area
  • Respiration in supplemented in most
  • Innefficient
42

Why is respiration using lungs inefficient?

  • In humans, only 1/6 of the lung capacity is replenished.
  • 20%-30% of air remains in our lungs
43

Describe the outer feature of the mammalian respiratory system.

  • Nostrils
  • Internal Nares
44

Describe the internal features of the mammalian respiratory system.

  • Glottis
  • Larynx
  • Trachae
45

What do frogs use for ventilation?

Positive pressure

46

What do we as humans use for ventilation?

Negative pressure

47

The lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied

Tidal Volume

48

What controls tidal volume?

The Medulla Oblongata