Zoology exam 5 study (3)
What are 5 adaptations for Hot Environments?
- Prevention of Overheating and water loss are linked
- Some organism become Fossorial (living underground)
- Thin, light, fur (Color and Weight)
- Evaporative cooling
What are 2 adaptations for cold environments?
- Decrease Conductance
- Increase heat Production
Describe how organisms can decrease conductance for a cold environment adaptation.
- Fur and Fat
- Counter-current exchange
Describe how organisms increase heat production for a cold environment adaptation.
- Brown fat
- Subnivian environments.
Describe brown fat.
- It has a no Shivering Thermogenesis
- Cells produce heat not ATP
Which 2 fishes are known to be Endothermic?
Sharks and Tuna
Describe the physiology of Endothermic fish.
They have counter-current exchange in muscles.
What are the three types of Adaptive Hypothermia.
- Daily Torpa
What are the three types of extracellular fluid.
Blood, Plasma, and interstitial fluid
Describe the percentage of fluid in the Human body.
- 70% Water
- 50% Cell
- 15% interstitial
- 5% plasma
Describe the tissue fluid of invertebrates with no circulatory system.
- Phogocytic cells
Describe the fluid of invertebrates with an open circulatory system.
Describe the composition of Mammalian blood.
- 55% plasma; Mostly water
- 45% cellular components
- 33% Hb by weight; 280 molecules.
- 10 milion Hb made per second
Describe the 4 steps of Hemostasis.
- The Vessel wall contracts
- Thromboplastin is released by tissue
- Prothrombin is catalyzed to become thrombin
- Fibronegen is catalyzed by thrombin to become fibrin
Describe an open circulatory system.
- It consists of a Hemocoel that contains hemolymph.
- The hemocoel has a large volume, low pressure and accessory hearts.
- The open circulatory system is usually not for the transport of gas in most
Describe the closed circulatory system.
- It consists of a heart, vessels, and Capillaries
- It has a higher pressure
- Fluid is lost to tissue space
- The Fluid is regained by the lymphatic system.
Vertebrate circulation is tied to what?
Describe the Circulation and Respiration in fishes.
- It is a one way circuit
- It undergoes respiration in the gills
Describe the circulation and respiration in salamanders.
The heart is partially separated and Respiration happens via the lungs and skin.
Describe the circulation and respiration in Mammals.
They have a separate pulmonary and systemic circuit
The blood in the right side of the heart is what? (oxygen)
Describe the movement of blood in the right side of the heart.
- Comes in through the right atrium
- through the AV valve
- The triscuspid valve
- Then the right ventricle
The blood in the left side of the heart is what? (oxygen)
Describe the movement of blood in the left side of the heart.
- Left Atrium
- Left Av valve
- Bicuspid valve
Myogenic Contraction is featured in which organisms?
Vertebrates and Molluscs.
Sinoatrial nodes can be found in which organisms?
Neurogenic Contraction is featured in which organisms?
Crustaceans and Annelids
What is the Cardiac center in Vertebrates?
What is the contaction of the heart called?
What is the relaxation of the heart called?
name the 5 types of blood vessels.
What is the purpose of the lymphatic system.
To drain interstitial spaces
The lymph nodes of the lymphatic system are meant to do what?
What do the lymph nodes of the lymphatic system contain?
A form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin or outer integument of an organism rather than gills or lungs.
The gills of an animal, most typically an amphibian, that are exposed to the environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits, as they are in most fishes
What do sea stars use for respiration
What do Polychaets use for respiration?
Brachial Tufts, Parapodia
What do fish, Mollusc, and Arthropods use for Respiration?
What do Insects use for respiration?
Describe the characteristics of terrestrial respiration using lungs.
- Most remain moist
- They have a High surface Area
- Respiration in supplemented in most
Why is respiration using lungs inefficient?
- In humans, only 1/6 of the lung capacity is replenished.
- 20%-30% of air remains in our lungs
Describe the outer feature of the mammalian respiratory system.
- Internal Nares
Describe the internal features of the mammalian respiratory system.
What do frogs use for ventilation?
What do we as humans use for ventilation?
The lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied
What controls tidal volume?
The Medulla Oblongata