Zoology Exam 5 Study guide (2)

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1

What is used Primarily for Osmoregulation in Protozoans?

Contractile Vacuole

2

The contractile Vacuole is used for what in Protozoans?

Osmoregulation

3

Invertebrates (acoelomates and Pseudocoelomates) use what for Osmoregulation?

Protonephridia

4

Protonephrihidia is used for osmoregulation in which organisms?

Invertebrates (acoelomates and pseudocoelomates)

5

What are examples of invertebraes that use protonephridia?

Flatworms and Rotifers

6

Is the Protonephridia an open or a closed system?

Closed

7

Flat Worms and Rotifers are know to use what for Osmoregulation?

Protonephridia

8

The Metanephridium in Eucoelomates is surrounded by what?

Blood Vessels

9

The Metanephridium in Eucoelomates excrete what?

Urea

10

When an excretory system excretes Urea it is said to be...

Ureotelic

11

What do molluscs use for excretion?

A pair of Metanephridia ('Kidneys')

12

In Molluscs, is the Metanephrium an open or a closed system?

Open

13

Describe Excretion in Molluscs.

Fluid enters into the Nephrostome and exits into the mantle cavity.

14

is excretion in Molluscs Ammonotelic or Urotelic?

Both

15

Ammonotelic means what?

It means that there is an excretion of Ammonia

16

What do Crustaceans use for excretion?

Green Gland

17

The Green Gland is used for Excretion by which organisms?

Crustaceans

18

What is located at the end sac of Antennal glands?

Osmoregulation Ultrafiltrate

19

Osmoregulation Ultrafiltrate is located where?

At the end sac of the Antennal gland.

20

Describe the Excretory system of Crustaceans

  1. They undergo selective resorption in their tubules.
  2. The fluid exits via Nephridiopore
  3. Excretion is then complete via active pumping from gill
21

Is the Excretion of Crustaceans Ammonotelic or Ureotelic.

Ammonotelic

22

What do Arthropods (Insects and Spiders) use for Osmoregulation?

Malpighian Tubules

23

Describe the Supplication of nutrients to the Malpighian tubules.

They are bathed in hemolymph ( they have no vessels).

24

Describe the Excretion process of Arthropods

  1. The Malpighian tubules are bathed in hemolymh
  2. Ions are actively transported into tubules
  3. The Ions are then Reasorbed via the rectum (rectal gland)
25

How are Ions in the Malpighian Tubules reasorbed?

Via the Rectum (Rectal Gland)

26

How are Ions Transported in the Malpighian tubules?

They are Actively Transported into tubules

27

What compound do Arthropods excrete during excretion?

Uric Acid

28

Excretion of Uric Acid is known as what?

Uricotelic

29

What do Spiders use for excretion?

Coxal glands

30

Coxal Glands in Spiders are similer to what?

Antennal Glands

31

Name the order in which the Kidney is developed.

  1. Archenephros
  2. Pronephros
  3. Mesonephros
  4. Metanephros or Opistnonephros
32

Archenephros is known as what?

The Ancestral condition

33

The Pronephros is...

Located only in Embryos

34

The Mesonephros is...

Functional in Embryos

35

The Metanephros is..

The functional kidneys of adult reptiles, birds and mammals.

36

The opisthonephros is....

The Functional kidneys of adult lampreys, fishes, and Amphibians

37

The Functional kidneys of adult lampreys, fishes, and Amphibians

The opisthonephros

38

The functional kidneys of adult reptiles, birds and mammals.

The Metanephros

39

The Functional kidneys of Embryos.

Mesonephros

40

The functional unit of a mammalian kidney is what?

A Nephron

41

Mammalian Kidneys are made up of what?

2 million nephrons

42

What are the 3 processes of a kidney function?

  1. Filtration
  2. Reabsorption
  3. Secretion
43

The site of filtration is known as what?

The Renal Corpuscle

44

Which two structures make up the Renal Corpuscle?

  1. Bowman's Capscule
  2. Glomerulus
45

Describe the order in which the kidneys reabsorb fluid.

  1. Proximal Tubule
  2. Loop of Henle
  3. Distal Tubule
46

How much Reabsorption is the Proximal Tubule responsible for?

60%

47

What type of transport takes place in the Proximal Tubule?

Mostly Active Transport

48

The Proximal Tubule is responsible for what?

Transporting the maximum amount of Fluid

49

The Loop of Henle is responsible for what?

The transportation of Concentrate urine

50

The Loop of Henle plays a role in what?

Osmoregulation

51

The Dista tubule is regulated by what in the Distal tubule?

Renin

52

Renin regulates what? in the Distal Tubule

The Distal Tubule

53

Renin Triggers what in the Distal tubule?

Angiotensin

54

Angiotensin trigger what in the Distal Tubule?

Aldosterone

55

Aldosterone controls what in the Distal Tubule?

Sodium and Potassium

56

Aldosterone triggers what?

ADH (Vasoprasin)

57

Vasoprasin influences what?

Permeability to water

58

Vasoprasin increases what?

  • Blood Pressure
  • Thirst
59

An organism that cannot regulate its body temperature except by behavioral means such as basking or burrowing.

A Poikilothermic Organism

60

An organism that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.

A Homeothermic Organism

61

Any animal whose regulation of body temperature depends on external sources, such as sunlight or a heated rock surface.

Ectothermic

62

Any Animal that maintains a constant body temperature independent of the environment.

Endothermic

63

Ectotherms compensate for temperature changes by...

Regulating Metabolism

64

Endotherms have the ability to generate what?

Heat

65

Endotherms have the Ability to Balance what?

Heat Production and Heat Loss