Cardiovascula Pathology Terms

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1

anemia

group of disorders generally defined as a reduction in the mass of circulating red blood cells.

2

aneurysm

card image

weakening and bulging of a part of a vessel wall.

3

angina

heart pain or other discomfort felt in the chest, shoulders, arms, jaw, or neck, caused by insufficient blood and oxygen to the heart; usually a symptom of heart disease.

4

arrhythmia

loss of heart rhythm (rhythmic irregularity)

5

arteriosclerosis

thickening, loss of elasticity, and loss of contractility of arterial walls; commonly called hardening of the arteries.

6

atherosclerosis

the most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by deposits of cholesterol, lipids, and calcium on the walls of arteries, which may restrict blood flow.

7

atrial fibrillation (AF, A-fib)

card image

common irregular heart rhythm marked by uncontrolled atrial quivering and a rapid ventricular response.

8

bruit

soft blowing sound caused by turbulent blood flow in a vessel

9

cardiac tamponade

serious conditions in which the heart becomes compressed from an excessive collection of fluid or blood between the pericardial membrane and the heart.

10

cardiomyopathy

group of conditions in which the heart muscle has deteriorated and functions less effectively

11

congestive heart failure (CHF)

inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body, resulting in lung

12

cor pulmonale

condition of right ventricular enlargement or dilation from increased right ventricular pressure; also called pulmonary heart disease or right-sided heart failure.

13

coronary artery disease (CAD)

narrowing of the lumen, or inner open space of a vessel, of heart arteries due to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis.

14

deep-vein thrombosis (DVT)

development of a blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the legs also called thrombophlebitis

15

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

serious condition that arises as a complication of another disorder, in which widespread, unrestricted microvascular blood clotting occurs; primary symptom is hemorrhage.

16

embolus

undissolved matter floating in blood or lymph fluid that may cause an occlusion and infarction

17

endocarditis

infection in the inner lining of the heart that may cause vegetation to form within one or more heart chambers or valves.

18

fibrillation

quivering of heart muscle fibers instead of an effective heartbeat

19

hypertension (HTN)

blood pressure that is consistently higher thatn 140 systolic, 90 diastolic, or both

20

ischemia

temporary reduction in blood supply to a localized area of tissue

21

malignant hypertension

rare, life-threatening type of hypertension evidenced by optic nerve (eye) edema and extremely high systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

22

mitral regurgitation

condition in which the mitral valve does not close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium; also called mitral insuffiency or mitral incompentency.

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mitral stenosis

conidition in which the mitral valve fails to open properly, thereby impeding normal blood flow and increasing pressure within the left atrium and lungs.

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murmur

blowing or swishing sound in the heart, due to turbulent blood flow or backflow through a leaky valve

25

myocardial infarction (MI)

death of heart-muscle cells due to occlusion of vessel; commonly called heart attack

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myocarditis

condition in which the middle layer of the heart wall becomes inflamed

27

pericarditis

acute or chronic condition in which the fibrous membrane surrounding the heart becomes inflamed

28

peripheral artery disease (PAD)

condition of partial or complete obstruction of the arteries of the arms or legs; similar to peripheral vascular disease (PVD), which includes both arteries and veins.

29

polycythemia vera

chronic disorder marked by increased number and mass of all bone marrow cells, especially RBCs, with increased blood viscosity and a tendency to develop blood clots.

30

Raynaud's disease

disorder that affects blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears, and nose, marked by vessel constriction and reduced blood flow in response to triggers such ass cold temperature

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rheumatic heart disease

complication of rheumatic fever in which inflammation and damage occur to parts of the heart, usually the valves

32

shock

syndrome of inadequate perfusion (circulation of bood, nutrients, and oxygen through tissues and organs) as a result of hypotension or low blood pressure

33

thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO)

type of vascular disease associated with tobacco use, marked by inflammation and clot formation within small vessels of the hands and feet, which may lead to gangrene and surgical amputation; sometimes called Buerger's disease

34

varicose veins

bulging, distended veins due to incompetent valves, most commonly in the legs.