Chapter 32- Biology 102

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Homeostasis and the Endocrine System
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Define and contrast animal anatomy and animal physiology.

Animal anatomy is the parts and structures of an organism.

Animal physiology is the study of the parts and functions of the structures.


Define the term "tissue" as it applies to animals.

Groups of cells with a similar appearance and common function


Identify the four major tissue types found in animals.

1. Epithelial

2. Muscle

3. Connective

4. Nervous


Describe the major characteristic (functions; cell types, extracellular features) of epithelial tissue.

  • Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities
  • Functions as a barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens and fluid loss
  • It's polarized meaning it has two different sides; the apical surface which faces the lumen or outside of the organ and is exposed to fluid and/or air, and the basal surface which is attached to the basal lamina a dense mat that separates the epithelium from the underlying tissue.

Describe the major characteristic (functions; cell types, extracellular features) of nervous tissue.

  • Functions in the receipt, processing and transmission of information
  • Neurons are the basic unit of the nervous system, they receive impulses from other neurons via its cell body and multiple extensions called dendrites. The neurons transmit impulses to other neurons, muscles and cells via extensions called axons which are often bundled together into nerves
  • Contains support cells call glial cells which help nourish, insulate and replenish neurons

Describe the major characteristic (functions; cell types, extracellular features) of muscle tissue.

  • Comes in three forms; skeletal, smooth and cardiac
  • All muscle cells consist of filaments containing the proteins actin and myosin which together enable muscles to contract
  • Skeletal muscles are attached to bone by tendons and is involved in voluntary movements
  • Smooth muscles are found in walls of many organs (internal) and are responsible for involuntary movements
  • Cardiac muscle form the contractile wall of the heart

Describe the major characteristic (functions; cell types, extracellular features) of connective tissue.

  • Consists of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
  • Often consisting of a web of fibers embedded in a liquid, jelly-like or solid foundation
  • Within the matrix are numerous cells called fibroblasts which secrete fiber proteins and macrophages which engulf foreign particles and cell debris
  • Many forms of connective tissues include; loose connective tissue, which holds skin and other organs into place; fibrous connective tissue, which is found in tendons and ligaments; adipose tissue, which stores fat; blood, which consists of cells and cell fragments suspended in plasma; cartilage, which provides flexible support to spine and bone, a hard mineral of calcium, magnesium and phosphate ions in a matrix of collagen

Compare and contrast the functions of the endocrine and nervous system in controlling animal physiology.

  • Endocrine System: Signaling molecules released into bloodstream by endocrine cells are carried to all locations in the body. Well adapted for gradual changes that affect the entire body. Pathway- endocrine cells respond to stimulus and secrete a particular hormone, hormone travels through bloodstream to target cell where it interacts with a specific receptor, signal transduction within target cell triggers a response.
  • Nervous System: Neurons transmit signals along dedicated routes connecting to specific locations in the body. Four types of cells can receive nerve impulses (other neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells and exocrine cells). Well adapted for immediate and rapid responses to environment. Pathway- hypothalamus receives info from nerves through out the body, signal from hypothalamus travel to the pituitary gland, hormonal signals from hypothalamus trigger hormone secretion from anterior pituitary.

Define homeostasis.

"Steady state", maintenance of internal balance, animals need to contain a relatively constant internal environment.