Zoology Exam 4 Study (4)

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1

What are examples of Organisms in the Phylum Hemichordata?

  • Acorn Worm
  • Petrobranchs
2

What kind of Nerve Chords can Hemichordates have?

Ventral or Dorsal nerve chord

3

Hemichordates have a body with what?

Proboscis

4

Do Hemichordates have a Notochord?

No, They have a Buccal Diverticulum (or Stomochord)

5

Are Hemichordates Solitary or Colonial?

Both

6

What do Hemichordates use for repiration?

Gill pores and Gill slits

7

What are the characteristics of Hemichordates?

  • No Notochord
  • They have a Stomochord (Buccal Diverticulum) that was mistaken for a Notochord
  • They have a body with proboscis
  • They have a Collar
  • They have a Trunk
  • Gill Slits
  • Gill pores
  • Some Have Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
  • Some have Ventral Nerve Chord
  • They can either be Solitary or Colonial.
8

What type of feeders are Hemichordates?

Suspension and Deposit.

9

Are Hemichordates Deuterostomes or protostomes?

Deuterostomes

10

What are the 5 Defining features of the Phylum Chordata?

  • Notochord (Support Rod)
  • Dorsal Hollow nerve cord
  • Pharyngeal pouches (gill slits)
  • Endostyle
  • Muscular Postanal tail
11

What can we say of the key defining features in Chordates?

They are all present at some time in development.

12

What are the subphyla of the phylum Chordata?

  • Cephalochordata
  • Urochordata
  • Craniata
13

Name a genera of the Subphylum Cephalochordata.

Amphioxus (Brachiostoma)

14

What are some Characteristics of the Subphylum Cephalochordata?

  • Segmented trunk musculature
  • Notochord
  • Larval features are retained in adults.
15

What are some examples of organisms in the subphylum Urochordata?

Tunicates and Salps

16

What are some characteristics of Urochordates?

  • Closest relatives to craniates
  • They have Chordate features in larvae, but lose it in adults.
17

What are Examples of organisms in the subphylum Craniata?

  • Vertebrates
  • Hagfish
18

What is a characteristic of organisms in the subphylum Craniata?

They have larval features retained but modified in adults.

19

In Craniates, a Notochord is modified into what?

a Vertebrae

20

In Craniates, a Dorsal hollow nerve cord is modified into what?

A spinal Cord

21

In Craniates, An Endostyle is modified into what?

A thyroid

22

In Craniates, Pharyngeal gill slits are modified into what?

Throat Structures

23

An extension of the spinal chord that extends beyond the animal's anus, that they may or may not have their entire life.

Postanal tail

24

What are the key features of the subphylum craniata?

–Cranium (house brain & complex sensory organs)

–Neural crest and placodes

–Endoskeleton

–Muscular pharynx and gut tube

–Hemoglobin

25

In Craniates, What house the brain and complex sensory organs?

Cranium

26

What type of skeleton do craniates posses?

Endoskeleton

27

What are the Chacteristics of the Neural crest?

–Ectodermal

–cells migrate from top of neural folds

–Forms cranium, parts of sense organs & sensory system in head and more

28

Forms cranium, parts of sense organs & sensory system in head and more

Neural Crest

29

Ectodermal thickenings that form sense organs and nerves

Placodes

30

The retention by adults of traits previously seen only in the young.

Paedomorphosis

31

Gene clusters that Control development of body plan in all animals, They also Turn genes ‘on’ and ‘off’

Hox Genes

32

What is a characteristic of Ancestral Craniates?

They were free swimming

33

Haikouichthys are....

Early jawless vertebrates

34

Jawless fishes that are not monophyletic

Agnatha

35

What is an example of an Agnatha.

Hagfish

36

What are some characteristics of a hagfish?

  • Craniate, not vertebrate (no true vertebrae)
  • No eyes, no fins, no scales
  • Unusual reproduction
  • Isoosmotic
37

What are the Synapomorphies of Vertebrates?

  • They have a Vertebrae around their Spinal cord and Notochord
  • They have two Semicircular duct in their ear
38

What are the habitats of the jawless vetebrate Lamprey?

  • Marine
  • Freshwater
39

What are the Characteristics of the Jawless Vertebrate Lamprey?

  • They are Marine or FW
  • They have eyes, Fins, and No Scales
  • Most are Parasitic
  • They have an Ammocoete larva
40

What are the synapomorphies of the class Gnathostoma?

  • They have Jaws
  • They have three semicircular ducts in their ear
41

What did Jaws evolve from?

Gill Arches

42

What periods did the Ancient Jawed Fishes live in?

The Silurian and Devonian

43

Which class of fish are within the Ancient Jawed Fishes?

  • Class Placodermi
  • Class Aconthodii
44

What are the Characteristics of the class Placodermi?

  • Head shield
  • neck joint
  • no internal bones
45

What are the Characteristics of the class Acanthodii?

  • Spiny
  • close to bony fish
46

What are some examples of organisms in the class Chondrichthyes?

  • Sharks
  • rays
  • skates
  • chimaeras
47

What are the synapomorphies of organisms in the class Chondrichthyes?

  • cartilage skeleton
  • placoid scales
  • retain urea during Osmoregulation
  • pelvic claspers in males
48

What structure is present in the male of Chondrichthyes?

Pelvic Claspers

49

What are Synapomorphies of Teleostomi?

  • Lungs
  • Bony endoskeleton
50

Class Actinopterygii are known to be what?

the most diverse group of vertebrates with 27,000 species

51

The Synapomorphies of Tetrapods are what?

  • Girdles
  • Appendages
52

Class Sarcopterygii are..?

Fleshy finned fishes.

53

What are some examples of the Class Sarcopterygii?

  • lungfish
  • coelacanth
  • tetrapods
54

What are examples of Amphibians?

  • Frogs
  • salamanders
  • newts
  • caecilians
55

What are the Synapomorphies ( key features) of Amphibians?

  • Reduced number of digits
  • Bimodal life history
56

What si the Synapomorphy of Amniota?

Their Embryo is surrounded by membranes (e.g., amnion).

57

What are the synapomorphies (key features) of the class mammalia?

  • Endothermy
  • Hair
  • Mammary glands
  • Placenta
  • Unique dentition
58

What is a characteristic of class Reptilia?

It is not Monophyletic.

59

What are some organisms in the class Reptilia?

  • turtles
  • lizards
  • snakes
  • birds (Class Aves)