A&P chapter 1

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1

humans and many other animals are _________

vertebrates

2

what are vertebrates classified by

segmented vertebral column

3

what is homeostasis

goal of physiological regulation and the key to survival in a changing eniornment

4

what is gross anatomy and what is another name for it

examines large visible structures . also called macroscopic anatomy

5

what is surface anatomy

a type of gross anatomy that involves the exterior features

6

what is regional anatomy

a type of gross anatomy that involves certain body areas

7

what is systemic anatomy

a type of gross anatomy that involves the organ system

8

what is developmental anatomy

a type of gross anatomy that involves examining someone from conception to death

9

what is clinical anatomy

a type of gross anatomy studying medical specialities

10

what is microscopic anatomy

examines cells and molecules

11

define cytology

the study of cells and their structure

12

define histology

the study of tissues and their structure

13

what does cell physiology study

processes within and between cells

14

what does organ physiology study

functions of specific organs

15

what does systemic physiology study

functions of an organ system

16

what does pathological physiology study

effects of diseases

17

what are the levels of organization

chemical-cellular-tissue-organ-organ system- organism

18

what are the major organs or the integumentary system

1. skin
2. hair
3. sweat glands
4. nails

19

what are the functions of the integumentary system

to protect against environmental hazards , help regulate body temp and provide sensory information

20

what are the major organs or the skeletal system

1. bones
2. cartilages
3. associated ligaments
4. bone marrow

21

what are the functions of the skeletal system

provides support and protection, stores calcium and other minerals and to form blood cells

22

what are the major organs of the muscular system

skeletal muscles and associated tendons

23

what are the functions of the muscular system

movement
protection
maintain body temperature

24

what are the major organs of the nervous system

brain
spinal cord
peripheral nerves
sense organs

25

what are the functions of the nervous system

1. directs immediate response to stimuli
2. coordinates or moderates activities of other organs
3. provides and interprets sensor information about external conditions

26

what are the major organs of the endocrine system

pituitary gland
thyroid gland
pancreas
adrenal glands
goads
endocrine tissues in other systems

27

what are the functions of the nervous system

1. direct long term changing in activities of other organ systems
2. adjust metabolic activities and energy used by the body
3. controls may structural and function changes development

28

what are the major organs of the cardiovascular system

heart
blood
blood vessels

29

what are the functions of the cardiovascular system

-distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide
-distributes heat and assist in control of body temperature

30

what are the major organs of the lymphatic system

spleen
thymus
lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
tonsils

31

what are the functions of the lymphatic system

1. defends against infection and disease
2. returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream

32

what are the major organs of the respiratory system

nasal cavities
sinuses
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs
alveoli

33

what are the functions of the respiratory system

delivers air to alveoli
provides oxygen to bloodstream
removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream
produces sound of communication

34

what are the major organs of the digestive system

teeth
tongue
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
liver
gallbladder
pancreas

35

what are the functions of the digestive system

processes and digest food
absorbs and conserves water
absorbs nutrients
stores energy reserves

36

what are the major organs of the urinary system

kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra

37

what are the functions of the urinary system

excretes waste products from the blood
controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced
stores urine prior to voluntary elimination
regulates blood ion concentration and pH

38

what are the major organs of the male reproductive system

testes
epididymides
ductus deferentia
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
penis
scrotum

39

what are the functions of the male reproductive system

produces male sex cells, suspending fluids, and hormones
sexual intercourse

40

what are the major organs of he female reproductive system

ovaries
uterine tube
uterus
vagina
labia
clitoris
mammary glands

41

what are the functions of the female reproductive system

produces female sex cells and hormones
support developing embryo from conception to delivery
provides milk to nourish newborn infant
sexual intercourse

42

what is homeostasis

all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment; systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range

43

what are the two mechanisms of regulation

autoregulation(intrinsic)
extrinsic regulation

44

what is autoregulation (intrinsic)

automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change

45

what is extrinsic regulation

response controlled by nervous and endocrine systems

46

what are the three parts of homeostasis and what do they do

receptor-receives the stimulus
control center- processes the signal and sends instruction
effector- carries out instruction

47

what is the role of negative feedback

negate the stimulus and bring body back to homeostasis and normal range is achieved
http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/biosnippets/biosnippets_container2.swf

48

what is the role of positive feedback

increase change of the stimulus and body is moved away from homeostasis; normal range is lost; used to speed process

49

homeostasis is a state of equalbrium. what does that mean

opposing forces are in balance

50

what is dynamic equilibrium

continual adaptation

51

what is superficial anatomy

locating structures on or near the body surface

52

what are the three anatomical landmarks and their meanings

anatomical position: hands at side, palms forward
supine : lying down, face up
prone: lying down, face down

53

what are the anatomical regions

-body region
-abdominopelvic quadrants
-abdominopelvic region

54

what are the abdominopelvic quadrants

right upper quadrant
right lower quadrant
left upper quadrant
left lower quadrant

55

what are the abdominopelvic regions

right and left hypochondriac region
right and left lumbar region
right and left inguinal region
epigastric
umbilical
hypogastric(pubic)

56

directional terms: anterior

front surface (naval anterior to trunk surface)

57

directional terms: ventral

the belly side (navel ventral to trunk surface)

58

directional terms: posterior or dorsal

the back surface (shoulder blade posterior to rib cage)

59

directional terms: cranial or cephalic

the head

60

directional terms:superior

above; at a higher level

61

directional terms: caudal

the tail (hips caudal to waist)

62

directional terms: inferior

below; at a lower level (knees inferior to hips)

63

directional terms: medial

toward the body's longitudinal axis; toward the midsagittal plane ( the medial surface of the thighs may be in contact; moving medially from the arm across the chest surface brings you to the sternum

64

directional terms: lateral

away from the body's longitudinal axis; away from the midsagittal plane (thigh articulates with the lateral surface of the pelvis; moving laterally form the nose brings you to your cheek)

65

directional terms: proximal

toward an attached base ( thigh is proximal to the foot; moving proximally from the wrist brings you to the elbow)

66

directional terms: distal

away from an attached base ( fingers are distal to the wrist; moving distally from the elbow brings you to the wrist

67

directional terms: superficial

at, near or relatively close to the body surface

68

directional terms: deep

farther from the body surface

69

what is a plane

a three dimensional axis

70

what is a section

a slice parallel to a plane

71

why are planes and sections used

used to visualize internal organization and structure

72

terms that indicate sectional planes : transverse or horizontal

perpendicular to long axis. separates superior and inferior portions of the body . a cut in this plane is called a cross section

73

terms that indicate sectional planes : sagittal

parallel to long axis. separates right and left portions.

74

terms that indicate sectional planes :midsagittal

plane passes through the mid-line, dividing the body into right and left sides

75

terms that indicate sectional planes : parasagittal

cut parallel to the midsagittal plane. separates the body into right and left portions of unequal size.

76

frontal or coronal

separates anterior and posterior portions of the body (coronal used for portions of the skull)

77

what are the 2 essential functions of body cavities

1. protect organs from accidental shocks
2. permit changes in size and shape of internal organs

78

what is the ventral body cavity divided by and what are the 2 cavities created

the diaphragm
1. thoracic cavity
2. abdominopelvic cavity

79

what do serous membranes do

line body cavities and cover organs

80

what are the two parts of serous membrane

card image

partial layer- lines cavities
viscera layer- covers organs

81

what is the thoracic cavity composed of and what do they contain

right and left pleural cavities and they contain the right and left lung

82

what is the upper portion of the medisatium filled with

blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thymus

83

what is the lower portion of the medisatium contain

pericardial cavity

84

what does the periocardial cavity contain

the heart

85

what is the peritioneal cavity

chamber within abdominopelvic cavity

86

what does the peritioneal cavity contain

parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum

87

what does the parietal peritoneum do

line the internal body wall

88

what does the visceral peritoneum do

covers the organs

89

what is the abdominal cavity

the superior portion

90

what does he abdominal cavity contain

the diaphragm to top of pelvic bones
digestive organs
retroperitoneum space

91

what is the retroperitoneum and what does it contain

area posterior to peritoneum and anterior to muscular body wall. contains pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and parts of the digestive tract

92

what is the pelvic cavity

the inferior portion

93

where is the pelvic cavity and what does it contain

within pelvic bones and contains reproductive organs, rectum, and bladder