Integumentary System (Chapter 4)

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Pathology terms
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1

abrasion

scraping away of skin or mucous membranes

2

acne

disease of the sebaseous (oil) glands and hair follicles in the skin, marked by plugged pores, pimples, cysts, and nodules on the face, neck, chest, back, and other areas.

3

actinic keratosis

precancerous condition in which rough, scaly patches of skin develop, most commonly on sun-exposed areas such as the scalp, neck, face, ears, lips, hands, and forearms; also known as solar keratosis

4

alopecia

autoimmune disease that results in loss of hair

5

alopecia areata

causes patchy hair loss from the scalp

6

alopecia totalis

causes total scalp hair loss

7

alopecia universalis

causes total body hair loss

8

basal cell carcinoma

common type of skin cancer that typically appears as a small, shiny papule and eventually enlarges to form a whitish border around a central depression or ulcer that may bleed.

9

bulla

large blister or skin vesicle filled with fluid

10

burn

type of thermal injury to the skin caused by a variety of heat sources.

11

callus

thickened, hardened, toughened area of skin caused by frequent or chronic pressure or friction

12

carbuncle

very large furuncle or cluster of connected furuncles

13

cellulitis

potentionally serious bacterial skin infection marked by pain, redness, edema, warmth, and fever

14

comedo

blackhead

15

corn

small callus that develops on smooth, hairless skin surfaces, such as the backs of fingers or toes, in response to pressure and friction; hard corns typically develop on the sides of feet and tops of toes, soft corns usually develop between toes

16

cyst

fluid-or solid containing pouch in or under the skin

17

decubitus ulcer

area of injury and tissue death caused by unrelieved pressure that impedes circulation in the skin and underlying tissues; also called a bedsore

18

ecchymosis, contusion

discoloration of the skin, bruise

19

eczema

inflammatory skin condition marked by red, hot, dry , scaly, cracked, and itchy skin or blister

20

epidermoid cyst

small sac or pouch below the skin surface containing a thick, cheesy substance; appears pale white or yellow but can be darker in dark-skined people

21

fissure

small, cracklike break in the skin

22

folliculitis

inflamation of hair follicles, marked by rash with small red bumps, pustules, tenderness, and itching, common on the neck, armpit, and groin area

23

frostbite

injury that occurs when skin tissues are exposed to temperatures cold enough to cause them to freeze

24

furuncle

infection of a hair follicle and nearby tissue, also called a boil; more invasive than folliculitis because it involves the sebaseous gland

25

impertigo

bacterial skin infection marked by yellow to red weeping crusted, or pustular lesions; common in children

26

incision

surgical cut in the flesh

27

laceration

cut or tear in the flesh

28

Lyme disease

bacterial infection transmitted by ticks, marked by erythema chronicum migrans, a red, circular rash that slowly expands and enlarges; untreated disease causes multisystem symptioms

29

macule

freckle, flat, discolored spot on the skin

30

malignant melanoma

aggressive form of skin cancer that often begins as various colored, asymmetrical lesions larger than 6mm in diameter

31

melasma

development of irregular areas of darker-pigmented skin on the forehead, nose, cheek, and upper lip; also called chloasma or the mask of pregnancy

32

papule

small, raised spot of bump on the skin such as a mole

33

paronychia

acute or chronic infection of the margins of the fingernail or toenail, marked by warmth, erythema, edema, pus, throbbing, pain, or tenderness; causes the nail to become discolored and thickened.

34

pediculosis

infestation of head, body, or pubic lice, marked by itching, the appearance of lice on the body, and eggs (nits) attached to the hair.

35

petechiae

tiny red or purple hemorrhagic spots

36

psoriasis

chronic, inflammatory skin disorder marked by the development of silvery-white scaly plaques or patches with sharply defined borders and reddened skin beneath

37

puncture

hole or wound made by a sharp, pointed instrument

38

pustule

small, pus-filled blister

39

rosacea

chronic condition that causes flushing and redness of the face, neck, and chest

40

scabies

contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mire, with symptoms of itching, scaly papules, insect burrows, and secondary infected lessions most prevalent in skin folds at the wrists and elbows, between the fingers, under the arms, in the groin , and under the beltline

41

scales

area of skin that is excessively dry and flaky

42

sebaceous cyst

small sac or pouch bellow the skin surface filled with a tick fluid or semisolid oily substance called sebum

43

seborrheic keratosis

benign, flat, irregularly shaped skin growths or various colors with a warty, waxy, "stuck-on" appearance

44

squamous cell carcinoma

type of cancer that usually appears in the mouth, esophagus, bronchi, lungs, or vagina and uterine cervix, marked by a firm, red nodule or a scaly appearance; may ulcerate

45

tinea

fungal skin disease occurring on various parts of the body, also called a ringworm. Includes: capitis (scalp), corporis (trunk), crusis ( genital areas), nodosa ( mustache and beard), pedis ( feet athletes' foot), unguium (nails)

46

ulcer

lesion of the skin or mucous membrane, marked by inflammation, necrosis, an sloughing of damaged tissues

47

vesicle

clear, fluid filled blister

48

vitiligo

chronic skin disease that results in patchy loss of skin pigment; may also affect hair color and cause white patches or streaks

49

wart

small, benign skin tumor caused by various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) appearance varies from tiny to moderated-sized bumps or cauliflower-shaped growths.

50

wheal

rounded, temporary elevation in the skin, white in the center with a red-pink periphery and accompanied by itching