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Card Lost in couch
updated 4 years ago by obhill
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nutrition
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1

Bilateral symm is associated with

cephalization

so sensory organs & mobility

(or su sensory organs & mobility??)

2

Coelem

fluid-filled cavity where nutrients circulate & organs move freely

3

coelomate

enclosed body cavity completely lined w/ mesoderm

4

Pseudocoelomate

enclosed

partially lined w/ mesoderm

fluid filled space

5

Acoelomate

no enclosed body cavity

6

Bilaterians

3 Germ

Layers

ectoderm

endoderm

mesoderm

(all bilaterians are triploblasts)

7

Nematocysts

use tentacles to capture prey

8

Cnidaria

ex/

jellyfish

coral

anemones

hydra

9

Nematoda characteristics (5)

roundworms

bilateral

triploblastic

pseudocoelomates

protosomes

some free-living, some parasitic

10

Platyhelminthes

flatworms

bilateral

triploblastic

acoelomates

protostomes

some parasitic

open digestive symptoms

11

Cnidaria Characteristics (4)

radial symmetry

diploblastic

sessile +/or mobile, tentacles

mouth anus

12

Platyhelminthes (3)

scolex

schistosomiasis

tapeworms

13

Abscisic Acid (3)

inhibits growth

promotes dormancy

stomata control

(ABA)

14

Plant hormones produce change by: (4)

1. turning genes on / off

2. modifies DNA transcription

3. changes cell division

4. transform cell growth

15

Plant hormones has multiple effects based on: (4)

1. where

2. concentration

3. plant developmental age

4. presence of other hormones

16

Gibberellins (2)

trigger germination

stimulates fruit development along with auxin (? auvin?)

17

Cytokins (5)

root apical dominance

promotes cell division

can delay aging

flourists

cell cycle

18

Ethylene (2)

only gaseous plant hormone

involved in plant senescence

19

Hypersensitive Response (2 Options)

1. take away pathogen's food

2. seal it off

20

Plant senescence (3)

fruit ripening

flowers fading

leaf abscission

21

Auxins (3)

1. photo & gravitotrophic responses (cell elongation)

2. development of seedless fruit

3. Apical Dominance

22

Apical Dominance

primary growth restricted to main stem

so lateral shoots are dormant

23

Brassinosteroids

- chem. similar to ?

- induces what ?

- although steroids . . .

cholesterol & sex homones

cell elongation / growth

don't enter plasma membrane of a plant cell

24

Fungal secondary metabolites

endophytes

deters herbovores (distasteful)

oviposition ?

deters pathogenic fungi

25

Ectomycorrhizal

form sheaths around roots & penetrate between root cells

(ecto not w/ in)

26

Basidiomycota

club fungi

some saprotrophic --> digest lignin

some mycorrhizal --> ecto

muchrooms

27

Mycorrhiza

fungi & plant roots

incr. surface area

first "internet" (communication)

28

Endomycorhizzal

penetrate cell wall

contact plasma membrane of root cells

(endo w/in)

29

Endophytes

inside plant

sometimes plant benefits (growth, heat & drought tolerance)

positive --> no impact

secondary metabolites

30

Karyogamy

2n

from diff mating types

31

Lichens

- w/ what

- layers

- prevents

- funct

- reproduction

fungi w/ green algae +/or cyanobacteria

mutualisms (mostly benefit fungi)

air pollution

3 layers

prevents drying out

asexual reproduction

32

After karyogami

- zygote undergoes meosis

- to product haploid cells that develop into a spore producing structure

- mitosis from there or out

33

Chytrioliomycota

swimming gametes & spores

unique

most saprophytic, some parasitic

34

Ascomycota

sac fungi

spores form in a scii

many are lichen forming

morels & truffles

some are parasitic

35

Carotenoids decrease cancers: (2)

lung & oral cancers

36

vitamin E/day

15 mg

37

Spina Bifida

folate . . .

birth defect

improper closing of neural tube

38

Chapter 8 Nutrition

(nothing on the back)

39

Megaloblast

large immature red blood cell bc abnormal division

40

Folate Deficiency

immature cells can't divide in early red blood cell synthesis . . .

no new DNA . . .

megaloblast

41

Riboflavin

avg intake slightly above RDA

42

Folate Functions

B-9

coenzymes DNA

metabolize aminos

forms neurotransmitters

43

chloecalciferol (Vitamin D)

form synthesized in human body

44

Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D)

synthetic

45

Pantothenic Acid

B-5

coenzyme a

46

Vitamin B-6 Functions

synthesis of neurotransmitters

metabolic coenzymes

* amino acid reactions

synthesis of blood cells

tryptophan --> niacin

47

Vitamin K

% requirements met by colon

10%

48

Alpha-tocopherol

most active & potent vitamin E

49

Vitamin E supplementation

not currently recommended

50

Food highest in Vitamin D

salmon

51

Vitamin D deficiency

rickets

osteomalacia (adult rickets)

52

Carotenoids & LDL

May decr. cardiovasc disease by preventing LDL oxidation

53

Carotenoids

--> Vitamin A

provitamin A

54

Vitamin A storage

liver

55

Vitamins lost from

time picked --> consumed

56

Water vs Fat Solube Excretion

water = excreted based on tissue sat.

fat are not readily excreted

57

% fat soluble

absorbed

_______________

% water soluble

40 - 90

______________________

50 - 90

58

Megadose

2 - 10x human needs

59

Vitamin classification

body can't make enough

absence = deficiency

60

Vitamin D.

also a

hormone

61

children worldwide suffer from vitamin A deficiency

1/3

62

Thiamin Deficiency

Beriberi

"I can't. I can't"

alcoholism

63

Niacin Deficiency

4 D's

pellagra

dementia

diarrhea

dermatitis

death

64

Biotin

Vitamin B-7

chem. rxns

intestinal bacteria

65

Coenzyme A

allows for energy release from carbs, lipids, proteins

66

Vitamin B-6 Deficiency

multiple body systems

anemia

67

Niacin

(nothing on back)

68

Maternal Folate Deficiency (3)

neural tube defects

spina bifida

anencephaly

69

Vitamin D Daily

400 IU

70

Vitamin D Function

maintains normal range of calcium & phosphorus in the blood

71

Anencephaly

birth defect

folate

absence of brain & skull

72

Folate RDA & DV

400 micrograms

73

B vitamins

Thiamin

riboflavin

niacin

pantothenic acid

biotin folate