Vertebrate Zoology Test 2

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created 6 years ago by Chantal_S__Vazquez
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Vertebrate Life
Chapters 8-15
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1

When vertebrates moved from water to land, what challenges arose?

1. Air is less viscous than water (bone-structure)

2. Gravity is more influential than water (bone-structure)

3. Gills aren't effective on land (lungs)

4. Temperature change can be quick on land (body temp regulation)

2

Haversian system

Bone that is arranged in concentric layers around blood vessels forming cylindrical units

3

Zygapophyses

Processes on the vertebrae of tetrapods that interlock and resist twisting and bending, allowing the spine to act like a suspension bridge

4

Amphibians

Are not amniotes

Eggs are laid in water

5

Breathing on land

Non-amniotic - positive pressure: buccal pump to force air into the lungs

Amniotes - negative pressure: muscle for inhalation

6

Pumping blood on land

Valves: prevent backflow

Chambered heart: to increase BP

7

Tetrapods

Animals with 4 legs

End of Devonian - Start of Carboniferous

Came from lobe-finned fishes

8

Elpistostegids

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9

Elpistostegids Characteristics

Adapted to shallow water living

Eyes on top of head

Greatly reduced tail fin

Dorso-ventrally flattened

10

Fishapods

Example: Elpistostegids

Between fishes and tetrapods

Lost the bony operculum: enabled to raise head

Large ribs: support body out of water

Pectoral fin modified: could bend

Finger-like bones

11

Amniotic Egg

Albumin (white): acts as a cushion. and produces water and protein for development

Yolk (yellow): the major supplier of energy

12

Where do the three embryonic membranes come from and what do they do?

Chorion: outgrowths of the embryonic body wall; surrounds egg

Amnion: outgrowths of the embryonic body wall; surrounds embryo

Allantois: outgrowth of the hindgut; stores nitrogenous waste and serves as a respiratory organ

13

Fenestra

Holes in the skulls

Used for classification

More efficient muscle attachment

14

Fenestra patterns

Anapsid: without an arch (ancestral amniotes and turtles)

Synapsid: single arch (mammals and their ancestors)

Diapsid: two arches (birds and other reptiles)

15

Sirenidae (Salamander)

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Large, aquatic, southeast & Florida

16

Amphiumidae (Salamander)

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Large, aquatic, southeast & Florida

17

Plethodontidae (Salamander)

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Most terrestrial, lungless, nasolabial groove

18

Ambystomatidae (Salamander)

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Mole Salamander

19

Cryptobranchidae (Salamander)

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Giant Salamander

20

Hynobiidae (Salamander)

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Only in Asia

21

Proteidae (Salamander)

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Waterdogs and Mudpuppies

22

Salamandridae

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Newts

23

Brachycephalidae (Anurans)

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24

Bufanidae (Anurans)

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Toads

25

Dendrobatidae (Anurans)

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New world

Poison

26

Hylidae (Anurans)

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Tree frogs

27

Leptodactylidae (Anurans)

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Neotropical frogs

28

Mantellidae (Anurans)

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Old world

Poison

29

Microhylidae (Anurans)

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Narrowmouthed Toads

30

Ranidae (Anurans)

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