Nester's Microbiology: A Human Perspective: Microbial Metabolishm: Fueling Cell Growth Flashcards


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created 6 years ago by Michele_Schweers_Simms
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1

Metabolism

Sum of all the chemical reactions in a cell

2

Catabolic reactions

Converts energy from environment into a usable form, EX: ATP is usable form

3

Anabolic reactions

using energy from ATP to do work

4

Kinetic energy

energy of motion

5

Potential energy

stored energy

6

Exergonic reactions

have more energy stored in their reactants than in the products (exits reactants)

7

Endergonic reactions

have more energy stored in their products than in the reactants (stored energy in products)

8

Linear Metabolic Pathway

one starting molecule always makes one particular end product

A to B

9

Branched Metabolic Pathway

one starting molecule can make more than one different end product

C to D and E

10

Cyclical Metabolic Pathway

the starting molecule is regenerated at the end of the pathway

F makes F

11

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate is the usable energy molecule of cells

12

Phosphorylation

adding a phosphate group onto ADP in order to create ATP

13

Substrate level phosphorylation

chemical energy from an exergonic reaction is used to add a phosphate group to ADP

14

Oxidative phosphorylation

uses the energy of proton motive force to add a phosphate group to ADP

15

Photophosphorylation

photosynthetic organisms use sunlight energy to create proton motive force, use proton motive force to add a phosphate group to ADP

16

Enzymes

proteins that act as catalysts

17

active site

where substrates bind, where reaction occurs and where products are released

18

Allosteric regulation

changing an enzyme's shape to make it nonfunctional

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allosteric site

place on an enzyme where an effector molecule can bind

20

Noncompetitive inhibition

the effector molecule does not compete with the substrate for the active site

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Feedback inhibition

type of allosteric regulation where the effector molecule is one of the products of the reaction

22

Competitive inhibition

molecule called an inhibitor binds to the active site preventing the substrates from binding; not reversible

23

What is needed for metabolism to occur?

ATP, Energy Source, Electron Source, Electron Carriers and Enzymes

24

What are the four parts of the Central Metabolic Pathway?

Glycolysis, Transition Step, Kreb's Cycle and Electron Transfer Phosphorylation

25

Fermentation

incomplete breakdown of a carbohydrate

26

What are the two parts of Fermentation?

Glycolysis to produce 2 pyruvates AND 2 pyruvates become transformed into end products

27

Name four End Products produced in Fermentation.

Lactic Acid, Ethanol, Propionic Acid and 2,3 butanediol acetoin

28

Lactic Acid

End product produced when pyruvate is converted by lactic acid bacteria - Lactobacillus; live active cultures of yogurt; normal resident of the human vagina; muscle cells use fermentation when oxygen deprived (heavy exercise)

29

Ethanol

End product where yeast converts pyruvate into ethanol; drinkable alcohol, also used to make bread rise

30

Propionic Acid

End product produced by Propionicbacterium; added to milk to make swiss cheese to flavor and CO2 generated produces holes.

31

2,3 butanediol and acetoin

End product produced together by some types of coliform bacteria. an intestinal bacteria that lives in animals and can cause recreational waters to be shut down due to water run off.

32

proton motive force

the form of energy that results from the electrochemical gradient established by the electron transport chain

33

precursor metabolites

serve as carbon skeletons from which subunits of macromolecules can be made; pyruvate converted to three different amino acids

34

electron transport chain

a series of membrane-embedded electron carriers; accepts the electrons from NADH and FADH

35

chemolithotrophs

extract electrons from inorganic energy sources, passing them to an electron transport chain that generates a proton motive force

36

photosynthesis

the capture and conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy

37

Carbon fixation

how chemolithoautotrophs and photoautotrophs use carbon dioxide to synthesize organic compounds

38

Calvin cycle

six turns of the carbon fixation cycle that incorporate six molecules of CO2 and produce the equivalent of one molecule of fructose-6-phosphate (an intermediate of glycolysis)

39

Location of Glycolysis

Cytoplasm of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

40

Molecule in and out of Glycolysis

Glucose (C6H12O6) goes in and 2 Pyruvate come out

41

How many ATP are generated during Glycolysis?

2 Net ATP gained (2 ATP used to begin; 4 created)

42

What type of phosphorylation occurs during Glycolysis?

Substrate level phosphorylation

43

How many electron carriers are reduced during Glycolysis?

2 NADH

44

Location of Transition Step

Cytoplasm for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

45

Molecule in and out of Transition Step

2 Pyruvate molecules IN and 2 Acetyl CoA OUT

46

How many ATP are generated during Transition Step?

NO ATP

47

What type of phosphorylation occurs during Transition Step?

NONE

48

How many electron carriers are reduced during Transition Step?

2 NADH

49

Location of Kreb's Cycle/TCA

Cytoplasm of prokaryotes and mitochondria of eukaryotes

50

Molecule in and out of Kreb's Cycle/TCA

2 Acetyl CoA molecules IN and Electron Carriers OUT

51

How many ATP are generated during Kreb's Cycle/TCA?

2 ATP

52

What type of phosphorylation occurs during Kreb's Cycle/TCA?

Substrate level phosphoylation

53

How many electron carriers are reduced during Kreb's Cycle/TCA?

6 NADH and 2 FADH

54

Location of Respiration/ETP

Cell membrane of prokaryotes and inner membrane of mitochondria of eukaryotes

55

Molecule IN and Molecule OUT of Respiration/ETP

ALL Electron Carriers of Glycolysis, Transitions Step and Kreb's/TCA are molecules IN and 32-34 ATP are the molecules OUT

56

What type of phosphorylation occurs during Respiration/ETP?

Oxidative phosphorylation

57

How many ATP are generated from one molecule of glucose?

2 ATP in Glycolysis; 2 ATP in Kreb's Cycle; 34 ATP in ETP; with ideal conditions in liver and muscles 38 ATP OR with bacteria, brain, kidney and skin 36 ATP

58

ATP is produced

During exergonic reactions of catabolism

59

ATP is used to power

Endergonic reactions of anabolism