Chapter 41

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Compare herbivore to carnivore to omnivore.

Herbivores = eat mainly autotrophs (plants & algae

  • Omnivores = regularly consume animals and plants
  • Carnivore= Consume animals

Define essential nutrients

  • Essential nutrients – required by cells and must be obtained through diet

What are the four types of essential nutrients?

1.Essential amino acids

2.Essential fatty acids




Compare undernourishment to malnourishment to overnourishment

  • Undernourishment = result of a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
  • Malnourishment = long-term absence from the diet of 1+ essential nutrients

What are the four stages of food processing?






Define the terms (In food processing)

  • Ingestion = act of eating
  • Digestion = process of breaking food down into small molecules that can be absorbed
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis – splits bonds in molecules by adding water
  • Absorption = uptake of nutrients by body cells
  • Elimination = passage of undigested material out of the digestive compartment

Trace the flow of food throughout the digestive system

  1. food enters the Oral Cavity through the mouth where the Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Palate, and Cheeks work together to break up the food and mix it with mucus and digestive enzymes.
  2. The Tongue then compresses the food or bolus against the Hard Patate and pushes it into the Oropharynx in what is called the Buccal Phase.
  3. After the bolus enters the Oropharynx, the Pharyngeal muscles push the bolus into the opening of the Esophagus. This is the Pharyngeal Phase.
  4. Once the bolus enters the Esophagus, the Esophageal Phase of swallowing begins. The bolus first goes through the Upper Esophageal Sphincter and then through Lower Esophageal Sphincter as it enters the Stomach
  5. As the bolus enters the Stomach, it first enters the Cardiac region, then the Fundus, Body and to the Pylorus. The Pyloric Sphincter then releases the material into the Duodenum.
  6. In the Small Intestine, the material moves from the Duodenum to the Jejunum to the Ileum. At the end, the Iliocecal Sphincter controls the movement of the material into the Large Intestine.
  7. The material from the Ileum enters the Cecum of the Large Intestine where it is processed and then moved to the Ascending Colon to the Transverse Colon to the Descending Colon and finally to the Sigmoid Colon.
  8. The Sigmoid Colon moves what is now feces into the Rectum. The feces then moves past through the Internal Anal Sphincter and External Anal Sphincter to the Anal Canal, through which it leaves the body.

Describe digestion in the mouth.

  • Digestion begins in the oral cavity
  • Mechanical
  • Salivary glands lubricate food
  • Teeth chew food into smaller particles
  • Salivary amylase breaks down the glucose polymers
    • Food is shaped into a bolus
    • Pharynx (throat) is a region that opens to both the esophagus and the trachea
    • Esophagus conducts food down to the stomach by peristalsis

What is the pharynx?

  • Pharynx (throat) is a region that opens to both the esophagus and the trachea

What is the role of the esophagus?

  • Esophagus conducts food down to the stomach by peristalsis

What is peristalsis?

  • Food is pushed along by peristalsis(Rhythmic contractions of muscles in the wall of the canal)

How does digestion occur in the stomach?

  • The stomach juices begin the digestion of proteins and fats into their respective bodily building blocks — amino acids and fatty acids.
  • The stomach's wavelike contractions push this messy but still intact substance along to the small intestine where your body begins to pull out the nutrients it needs. (Chyme)

What occurs in the small intestines?

  • Digestion and absorption occurs here
  • Small intestine – longest section of the alimentary canal

How much surface area does the small intestines have? What role does it play in absorption?

  • Small intestines has a large surface area
  • Due to villi and microvilli
  • Increases the rate of absorption
  • Most digestion is in the duodenum
  • The jejunum and ileum function mainly in absorption of nutrients and water

What happens in the large intestines?

  • Colon is connected to the small intestine
  • Major function is to recover water that has entered the alimentary canal
  • Wastes (feces) become more solid as they move through the colon and then are excreted

Where does excess energy get stored?

  • Animals store excess calories primarily as glycogen in liver and muscles
  • Secondarily, energy is stored as adipose (fat)
  • When fewer calories are taken in than are expended – fuel is taken from storage and broken down

What does overnourishment result in and give an example?

  • Overnourishment causes obesity – results from excessive intake of food energy which gets stored as fat
  • Obesity contributes to diabetes (type 2), colon and breast cancer, heart attacks, and stroke