Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: chapter 6 Flashcards


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1

Skeletal Cartilage

-made from cartilage

-water lends resilency

-contains no blood vessels

-surrounded by dense connective tissue called perichondrium which has blood vessels hat deliver nutrients

-resist outward expansion

-contain chondrocytes in lacunae and extracellular matrix

2

Hyaline cartilage

-provides support, flexibility, and resilience

-made of collagen fibers

-most abundant type

-weakest

-consist of spherical chondrocytes

-EO: fibers are not normally visibe in normal stain

3

Elastic cartilage

-similar to hyalin but more flexible (contains elastic fibers)

-external ear and epiglottis

4

fibrocartilage

-thick collagen fibers in roughly parallel rows of chondrocytes

-strongest kind, has great tensile strength

- menisci of knee; vertebral disc (where great pressure is needed)

5

Growth of cartilage (appositional)

-Growth in width

-results in outward expansion due o the production of cartilage matrix on the outside of the tissue

6

growth of cartilage (interstitial)

-Growth in length

-chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within by the lacunae bounded chondrocytes

-at the epiphyseal plate interstitial growth will add to the length of the bone

7

Axial skeleton

-long axis of body

-skull, vertebral column, rib cage

8

Appendicular skeleton

-bones of upper and lower limbs

-girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton

9

Long bones

-longer than they are wide

-limbs except for carpals and tarsals

10

short bones

-cube shaped bones (in wrist and ankle)

-sesamoid bones (within tendons, eg aptella)

-vary in size and number in different individuals

11

flat bones

-thin, flat, slightly curved

-sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones

12

irregular bones

-complicated shapes

-vertebrae, coxal bones

13

functions of bones

-support -movement

-protection -mineral and growth factor storage

-blood cell formation - triglyceride (fat) storage

-hormone production

- land marks to students of anatomy and medical personels

14

mineral and growth factor storage

-calcium and phosphorus , and growr