Chapter 40

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1

Compare/contrast anatomy to physiology

Both:Human organisms, Structure determines functions

Ana- deals with structures of body parts; forms and how they are arranged

Physio- considers the functions of body parts; what and how they work

2

Example of anatomy

parts of heat, size, shape, weight, layers of skin, can be used in dead specimens and rely on exams

3

Example of physiology

how kidneys filters waste, how the heart circulates blood and relays on experimentation

4

How is structure and function related in anatomy?

a joint suggests that the surrounding muscles and bones must move in at least one direction, and the amount of brain space dedicated to a particular task could indicate how important that task is

5

How is function related in physiology?

Physiologists examine how body parts work together -- from cells to organ systems -- and may also evaluate how an organ functions slightly differently from one animal to the next.

6

How do animals interact with their environment?

Animal’s size and shape are fundamental aspects of form that significantly affect the way the animal interacts with its environment

7

Why is surface area so important in living things

As the size of a structure increases the surface area to volume ratio decreases. The rate of exchange of substances therefore depends on the organism's surface area that is in contact with the surroundingsas organisms get bigger their volume and surface area both get bigger, but not by the same amount

8

What are the levels of biological organization

Cell

Tissue

Organ

Organ system

9

What are the general functions of the organ systems

  • Skeleton protects
  • Sensory organs
  • Internal digestive organs
  • Filtration systems

à allow animal to maintain stable internal environment

10

What are the four main types of tissue

1.Epithelial

2.Connective

3.Muscle

4.Nervous

11

What roles do the tissues play

1.Epithelial

◦Cover the outside of the body

◦Line organs and cavities within body

2.Connective

◦Holds many tissues and organs together and in place

3.Muscle

◦Responsible for almost all types of body movement

◦Contract in response to nerve signals

4.Nervous

◦Functions in receiving, processing, and transmission of information

12

Compare simple to stratified epithelium.

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

  • Multilayered

Regenerates rapidly

◦New cells push outward, old cells slough off

◦Found on surfaces subject to abrasion

  • Outer skin and linings of mouth, anus

Simple Squamous Epithelium

  • Single layer of plate-like cells

Functions in exchange of material

◦Thin and leaky

◦Lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs

13

Compare squamous to cuboidal and columnar epithelium

Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Cube-shaped cells
  • Specialized for secretion
  • Found in kidney tubules and many glands (salivary)

Simple Columnar Epithelium

  • Large, tall columns
  • Found in places of absorption or secretion
  • Lines the intestines

◦Absorbs nutrients

Secretes digestive juice

14

What is pseudostratified? Transitional?

Pseudostratified

  • Single layer
  • Cells vary in height and position of nuclei
  • Most often ciliated
  • Lines portions of respiratory tract (trachea)

◦Cilia sweeps mucus along surface

Transitional

tissue consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract and expand. It is so named because of this function in the transition of degree of distension. This tissue structure type is found in urothelium, including that of the urinary bladder, the ureters, and the superior urethra and gland ducts of the prostate.

15

What are the components of connective tissue? What is its function?

1.Collagenous fibers

◦Provide strength and flexibility

2.Reticular fibers

◦Join connective tissue to adjacent tissues

3.Elastic fibers

◦Makes tissues elastic; stretch and snap back to original length

16

Compare skeletal to smooth to cardiac muscle. Where is each found? Differences?

Skeletal muscle

  • Striated, multinucleated
  • Voluntary movement

Smooth muscle

  • Lacks striations
  • Involuntary movement
  • Churning stomach
  • Constricting arteries

Cardiac muscle

  • Striated, branched
  • Fibers interconnect via intercalated discs
  • Relay signals from cell to cell
  • Forms the contractile wall of heart
17

What types of cells are found in nervous tissue? Role of each?

Nervous

◦Functions in receiving, processing, and transmission of information

◦Contains neurons (nerve cells) – transmit impulses

Glia – supporting cells

18

How are tissues, organs, and organ systems coordinated? Which two systems are involved?

Endocrine system

◦Releases signaling molecules (hormones) into blood

◦Carried throughout body

Nervous system

◦Neurons transmit signals along routes that connect specific parts of the body

◦Nerve impulses can be received by neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, etc.

19

How do these systems work to control and coordinate the body?

Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals

  • Must regulate internal environment even while the external environment changes
  • Or conform to the external environment
20

Compare a regulator to a conformer.

Regulator

◦Animal that uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation

Conformer

◦Animal that allows its internal condition to change along with external changes

21

What is homeostasis? What things do humans keep constant?

  • Steady state”
  • Maintenance of internal balance regardless of environment
  • Examples:

◦Human body temperature at ~37°C (or 98.6°F)

◦Blood pH at 7.4

◦Blood glucose level of 70-110mg per 100mL of blood

22

How does negative feedback work?

  • Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback – which helps to return a variable to a normal range
  • Build up of the end product shuts the system off
  • Most homeostatic control systems function by negative feedback
23

What is a circadian rhythm?

  • In animals and plants, a circadian rhythm governs physiological changes that occur roughly every 24 hrs
24

What is thermoregulation?

  • Thermoregulation = process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
25

Compare endotherm to ectotherm.

Endothermic = generate heat by metabolism

  • Birds and mammals

Ectothermic = gain heat from external sources

  • Most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, non-avian reptiles
26

What are the five adaptations that help animals thermoregulate?

1.Radiation – emission of electromagnetic waves (sunlight mostly)

2.Evaporation – loss of heat through liquid vapor from surface

3.Convection – transfer of heat through air movement

4.Conduction – transfer of heat between objects in contact with each other

27

What part of the body is the thermostat?

  • Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system: skin, hair, and nails
28

What is metabolic rate? What two main factors influence metabolic rate?

  • Metabolic rate = amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time

Can be determined by:

  • Animal’s heat loss
  • Amount of O2 consumed or CO2 produced
29

What is torpor?

  • Torpor = physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases
  • Saves energy while avoiding dangerous conditions
30
  1. What is hibernation?
  • Hibernation = long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity