Zoology test 3 study guide
How many Germ layers are present in the phylum platyhelmithes?
What type of symmetry does the phylum platyhelmithes have?
What kind of body plan (cavity) does the platyhelminthes have?
What kind of organism is the phylum platyhelminthes?
What kind of gut does the phylum Platyhelminthes have?
Blind gut (gastrovascular tract)
What kind of Nervous system does a Platyhelminthes posses?
A simple nervous system. (Cephalized)
Having a simple nervous system and sense organs.
What feature do Platyhelminthes have that allows them to detect light?
Angled projections from the sides of the head, which gives some platyhelminthes an arrow-shaped appearance. These projections also contain concentrations of nerve cells.
What kind of repreduction do platyhelmithes undergo?
Asexual and sexual
Are most platyhelminthes monoecious or dioecious?
How do Platyhelminthes undergo osmoregulation/excretion?
Using Protonephridia. (flame cell)
What does the protonephridia consist of?
flame cells and nerve ganglia
Which organisms are in the class turbelliria
Free living flatworms
Which organisms are in the class trematoda?
Describe the symbiotic behavior of Flukes.
They are parasitic
How many hosts do flukes go through within a life time?
Which organisms are within the class cestoda?
Which organisms are within the class monogenea?
How many hosts do the class monogenea undergo within a lifetime?
What kind of organisms are the class turbelliria?
Free living flatworms
What are 3 features of the class turbellaria?
- They have a ciliated epidermis
- They have a muscular system
- They have a dual-gland adhesive system
What grade of organization is the phylum platyhelminthes?
What kind of digestion do turbellarians have? (Cellular)
intracellular and extracellular
What three structures help with the movement of turbellarians?
- Adhesive glands
How do Turbellarians excrete waste?
What organisms are in the clade neodermata?
What three classes are within the clade neodermata?
- class trematoda
- class cestoda
- class monogenea
What are four of the features of the clade neodermata? (Cells, Nucleus, Movement, Skin)
- No cellular epidermis
- Multinucleate covering
- lacks cilia
- syncytial tegument
Which organisms are part of the class trematoda?
Parasitic flukes (mostly vertebrates)
How many host does the class trematoda go through within a lifetime?
What is the intermediate (first) host of a class trematoda organism?
What is the definitive (second) host of a class trematoda organism?
What 4 specializations do the class trematoda have for parasitism?
- Attachment organs
- Increased reproductive capacity
- Penetration glands
- Cyst formation
How many host does the class trematoda go through within a lifetime?
Schistosoma is known as what?
A blood fluke
A disease caused by blood flukes.
Are schistosomas dioecious or monoecious?
How does one acquire schistosomiasis?
The eggs of the schistosoma lodge in organs.
What type of body does the class cestoda have?
Scolex. (attachment piece).
One of the segments of a tapeworm (of class cestoda) formed by a process of strobilation in the neck region of the worm, containing both male and female reproductive organs.
What kind of repreduction do platyhelmithes undergo (sexual cycle)?
Asexual and sexual
Highly specialized microvilli covering the entire surface of the tegument of cestodes. They also increase the surface area of cestodes.
Describe the sense organs of the class cestoda.
They have no special sense organs.
Is the class cestoda Monoecious or dioecious?
Describe the reproductive structure of a Cestode.
They have strobila with a germinative zone behind the scolex
Describe the fertilization process of the Cestode.
They self and cross fertilize.
Band of Ciliated tentacles used for respiration and feeding.
Organisms that posses Lophophores are known as?
What Body plan (coelom) does the Lophorate have?
Describe the symmetry of the clade lophotrochozoa
Describe the blasticity (Number) of the clade lophotrochozoa
Triploblastic (3 germ layers)
Phylum Rotifera, Phylum Ectoprocta, and Phylum Brachiopoda all belong to which clade?
Protostome lophotrochozoan clade
Approximately how many species does the phylum Rotifera posses?
What is the body plan (Coelom) of the phylum Rotifera?
Where does the Pseudocoelom of the Phylum Rotifera come from?
Describe the organ system of Rotifers.
They have a well developed organs.
Which part of the Rotifer is described as a cilited crown.
What organ do Rotifers use to grind food?
What type of digestive system does the phylum Rotifera have?
Complete Digestive tract.
A network of dead-end tubules lacking internal openings found in the phylum Rotifera and function in Osmoregulation.
Which cells are at the end of the Protonephridial tubules?
Describe the size of Rotifers.
Describe the nervous system and sensory organs of Rotifers.
They have a centralized Nervous system and Eyespots.
What kind environment can Rotifers survive?
Are Rotifers Dioecious or Monoecious?
Describe the Reproductive features of a Rotifer.
They can be sexual or Parthenogenic (females lay female eggs).
In Rotifers, Amictic eggs have what characteristic?
They are diploid eggs that produce females
In Rotifers, Mictic eggs have what characteristic?
They are Haploid eggs that produce males
What protective ability does the fertilized egg of a Rotifer have?
The ability to encyst.
The Phylum referred to as 'wheel bearing'.
Ectoprocts are also known as______________ or _______________
Are the organisms in the phylum ectoprocta solitary or colonial?
Where does the Anus of ectoprocts lie?
outside of the lophophore
Which colonies do ectoprocts resemble?
The Hydroid colonies.
Ectoprocts consist of a body known as_________and they live in a____________
In Ectoprocts, Cystids do what?
Form the Zoecium
In Ectoprocts, Polypides are used for what?
Describe the body plan of the ectoprocts (coelom).
Describe the digestive system of the ectoprocts.
Describe the organ system of Ectoprocts.
They have no respiratory, vascular, or excretory organs.
A means to reproduce asexually used by ectoprocts in which cells are encased in a chitinous covering so that they can survive unfavorable conditions.
Where do the eggs of ectoprocts fertilize?
Describe 2 reproductive features of ectoprocts.
- They are hermaphrodictic
- They can brood young
Brachiopods are also known as what?
How many living Brachiopods are there?
How many fossil species of Brachiopods are there?
What is the body plan of Brachiopods (Coelom).
Brachiopods use this for feeding and respiration
What are the two types of brachipods?
Articulate and inarticulate.
Describe the orientation of the valves of the Phylum Brachipoda.
They are unequal
Brachiopods with toothed hinges and simple opening and closing muscles
Brachiopods with untoothed hinges and complex opening and closing muscles
Brachiopods and Ectroprocts are a part of which phylum?
Describe the Symmetry of the Phylum Mollusca.
Describe the Digestive system of the Phylum Mollusca.
It has a complete gut
Describe the Body plan (coelom) of the phylum Mollusca.
it is Eucoelomate.
Describe the Clade the Mollusca is a part of.
They're of the Protostome Lophotrochozoan clade and have trochophore larvae.
The 'true coelom' of the phylum mollusca, is eventually reduced to what?
Hemocoels are also known as what?
What type of circulatory system does the Phylum Mollusca posses.
An open circulatory system.
What type of kidney does the phylum Mollusca have?
Describe the sensory system of the phylum mollusca.
It has a well developed nervous system and sense organs
Describe the two features of the reproductive aspect of the phylum Mollusca.
- They reproduce Sexually
- Some of them are Hermaphroditic
How many living species are in the phylum mollusca?
The Phylum Mollusca are known to be _________________ very important and have a value of $________ for the eastern seaboard of the U.S
The Phylum Mollusca has a great diversity in ______and ______ _______
The 'Head-Foot' of the Mollusc is used for what 3 functions?
The Radula in the 'head-foot' is used for what?
The muscular foot in the 'head-foot' is used for what?
The organs within the mollusc are known as what?
The Visceral mass
What are the two functions of the mantle in molluscs?
- It secretes shell
- protects the Viscera
What does the mantle enclose in molluscs?
the mantle cavity
In molluscs, respiratory organs contain what?
What four organ systems does the mollusc posses?
What is the excretory organ of the phylum mollusca?
In Molluscs, the nephrostome opens to the ____________ and exits out the ___________ ___________
Coelom/ Mantle Cavity
Radula are found only in.....
In molluscs, A cartilage which underlies and supports the radula, a ribbon of teeth
A 'Ribbon of teeth'.
What are the 4 classes of the phylum Mollusca.
Describe the Shell of the class Polyplacorphora.
It has 8 overlapping plates
What covers the margins of the class polyplacorphora?
What are 5 examples of organisms included in the class Gastropoda?
how many living species are within the class gastropoda.
What is the shell of the Class Gastropoda secreted by?
Describe the valve of the shell of the class gastropoda.
it is a univalve
When a gastropod shell twists to the right, it is.....
When a Gastropod shell twists to the left. it is.......
What Covers the aperture of the shell of the Gastropod?
What are the two functions of the shell of a Gastropod?
- Adaptation for terrestiality
What are 4 examples of organisms included in the class cephalopoda.
Which organ does a cephalopod use for locomotion?
Describe the circulatory system of cephalopods.
Closed circulatory system
Describe the nervous system of the cephalopod.
Well developed nervous system and sensory organs
Describe the reproductive characteristics of the cephalopod.
The fluid that is used in invertebrates for the purposes of circulation
Describe the chambered nautilus
- It has separate chambers
- It has 90 tentacles without suckers
What clade does the phylum annelida belong to?
What body plan (coelom) do annelids have?
Annelids are also known as....
'little rings' or 'segmented worms'
The phenomenon of having a linear series of body segments fundamentally similar in structure.
Metameric segments are referred to as
What type of skeletons do Annelids have
Hydrostatic skeleton (except leeches)
What type of digestive system do Annelids have?
What type of circulatory system do Annelids have?
What type of nervous system do Annelids have?
Centralized nervous systems
Stiff bristles present on the body of Annelids, they help them to attach to the surface and prevent backsliding during peristaltic motion.
How do annelids undergo respiration?
via skin, gills, or parapodia
How do Annelids undergo excretion?
Via a paired metanephridia (nephridia).
Describe the 3 reproductive aspects of annelids. (sexuality, monoecious or dioecious?)
- They Asexual and sexual
- Some have separate sexes
- Some are hermaphrodites
What are the 3 classes of the phylum Annelida?
Describe the Hydrostatic skeleton of an annelid.
- It is an open space for organ development.
- Muscles also contract against the fluid filled space (coelomic cavity).
Describe the body plan (not coelom) of annelids.
It has a two part head
Name the 2 part heads of annelids.
About how many species are within the phylum annelida?
Describe the habitat of the class polychaeta.
About how many species are within the class Polychaeta
Describe 3 features that the class polychaeta has.(Anatomy, reproductive, movement)
- They have a parapodia with setae
- The have no clitelum
- They can either be errant or sedentary
What 2 types of feeding do Polychaets undergo?
- Deposit Feeding
- Suspension feeding
Are Polychaet monoecious or Dioecious?
Describe the habitat of the class oligochaeta.
They can be freshwater or terrestrial.
How many species are within the class oligochaeta?
Describe the 2 reproductive aspects of the class oligochaeta (monoecious or dioecious?, sexual anatomy).
- They are Monoecious
- They have a clitellum
What are the five structures used by Oligochaets to feed?
- Chlorogogen cells
The crop in Oligochaets are used for what?
The Gizzard in Oligochaets are used for what?
The Intestine in Oligochaets are used for what?
The Chlorogogen cells in oligochaets are used for what?
Distribution of Nutrients
What do Oligochaets use for excretion?
Describe the Habitat of the class Hirudinea.
- Mostly Freshwater
- Some Marine
- Some Terrestial
About How many Species are within the class Hirudinea?
Describe the nature of the segment of the class hirudinea.
- They have a fixed number of segments
- usually 34
What is the coelom of the Hirudines filled with?
Describe the anatomical feature of the Hirudines.
- They have no Parapodia
- No septa
- No setae
- They have 1 0r 2 suckers
Describe the reproductive features of Hirudines.
- They have a temporary Clitellum
- They are Monoecious
Describe the symbiotic relationships of the class Hirudinea.
- They are Parasitic
- They are Predaceous
What protein is the exoskeleton of the phylum nematoda made of?
What is the synapomorphy of the phylum Nematoda?
They all have a cuticle made of collagen
Describe the habitats of the phylum nematoda.
- Fresh Water
Describe the size of most Nematodes.
They are microscopic
Describe the process of Ecdysis in Nematodes.
They shed their collagenous cuticle.
Describe the body plan (coelom) of Nematodes.
Describe the skeleton of Nematodes
They have a hydrostatic Skeleton
Are Nematodes Dioecious or Monoecious?
Describe the sensory system of nematodes.
They have a nervous system and sense organs.
Which are the only muscles that contract in Nematodes?
What are the five parasitic Nematodes?
- Filarial worms
How many Humans are infected with roundworms each year?
How are roundworms contracted?
Describe a feature of the hookworm.
They have a horny plates
What disease is caused by Trichinella?
How is Trichinosis contracted?
- By eating raw or undercooked meat
- Then the juveniles encyst in the muscle.
How many cases a year are there of trichinosis in the US?
How many children and adults contract pinworms each year in the US?
- 30% children
- 16% adults
Filarial worms use what to pass a disease?
A vector (Insect)
Where do Humans host Mirofilariae?
In the bloodstream.
What Disease do filarial worms cause?
William Campbell and Satoshi Omuru discovered what?
Avermectin (Ivermectin) derived from streptomyces that kills filarial worms.
Tu you you discovered what?
Artemisin derived from a plant and it treats malaria.