Zoology test 3 study guide

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Phylum platyhelminthes, Phylum Rotifera, Phylum Ectoprocta, Phylum Brachiopoda
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1

How many Germ layers are present in the phylum platyhelmithes?

3

2

What type of symmetry does the phylum platyhelmithes have?

Bilateral symmetry

3

What kind of body plan (cavity) does the platyhelminthes have?

Acoelomate

4

What kind of organism is the phylum platyhelminthes?

Flat worm

5

What kind of gut does the phylum Platyhelminthes have?

Blind gut (gastrovascular tract)

6

What kind of Nervous system does a Platyhelminthes posses?

A simple nervous system. (Cephalized)

7

Explain Cephalization

Having a simple nervous system and sense organs.

8

What feature do Platyhelminthes have that allows them to detect light?

Ocelli (eyespots)

9

Angled projections from the sides of the head, which gives some platyhelminthes an arrow-shaped appearance. These projections also contain concentrations of nerve cells.

Auricles.

10

What kind of repreduction do platyhelmithes undergo?

Asexual and sexual

11

Are most platyhelminthes monoecious or dioecious?

monoecious

12

How do Platyhelminthes undergo osmoregulation/excretion?

Using Protonephridia. (flame cell)

13

What does the protonephridia consist of?

flame cells and nerve ganglia

14

Which organisms are in the class turbelliria

Free living flatworms

15

Which organisms are in the class trematoda?

Flukes

16

Describe the symbiotic behavior of Flukes.

They are parasitic

17

How many hosts do flukes go through within a life time?

2

18

Which organisms are within the class cestoda?

Tapeworms.

19

Which organisms are within the class monogenea?

Fish parasites

20

How many hosts do the class monogenea undergo within a lifetime?

1

21

What kind of organisms are the class turbelliria?

Free living flatworms

22

What are 3 features of the class turbellaria?

  1. They have a ciliated epidermis
  2. They have a muscular system
  3. They have a dual-gland adhesive system
23

What grade of organization is the phylum platyhelminthes?

Organ

24

What kind of digestion do turbellarians have? (Cellular)

intracellular and extracellular

25

What three structures help with the movement of turbellarians?

  1. Cilia
  2. Muscles
  3. Adhesive glands
26

How do Turbellarians excrete waste?

via diffusion

27

What organisms are in the clade neodermata?

Parasitic Flatworms

28

What three classes are within the clade neodermata?

  1. class trematoda
  2. class cestoda
  3. class monogenea
29

What are four of the features of the clade neodermata? (Cells, Nucleus, Movement, Skin)

  1. No cellular epidermis
  2. Multinucleate covering
  3. lacks cilia
  4. syncytial tegument
30

Which organisms are part of the class trematoda?

Parasitic flukes (mostly vertebrates)

31

How many host does the class trematoda go through within a lifetime?

2

32

What is the intermediate (first) host of a class trematoda organism?

Mollusc

33

What is the definitive (second) host of a class trematoda organism?

Vertebrate

34

What 4 specializations do the class trematoda have for parasitism?

  1. Attachment organs
  2. Increased reproductive capacity
  3. Penetration glands
  4. Cyst formation
35

How many host does the class trematoda go through within a lifetime?

2 (digenean)

36

Schistosoma is known as what?

A blood fluke

37

A disease caused by blood flukes.

Schistosomiases

38

Are schistosomas dioecious or monoecious?

dioecious

39

How does one acquire schistosomiasis?

The eggs of the schistosoma lodge in organs.

40

What type of body does the class cestoda have?

Scolex. (attachment piece).

41

One of the segments of a tapeworm (of class cestoda) formed by a process of strobilation in the neck region of the worm, containing both male and female reproductive organs.

Proglottids

42

What kind of repreduction do platyhelmithes undergo (sexual cycle)?

Asexual and sexual

43

Highly specialized microvilli covering the entire surface of the tegument of cestodes. They also increase the surface area of cestodes.

Microthix (michrotriches)

44

Describe the sense organs of the class cestoda.

They have no special sense organs.

45

Is the class cestoda Monoecious or dioecious?

Monoecious

46

Describe the reproductive structure of a Cestode.

They have strobila with a germinative zone behind the scolex

47

Describe the fertilization process of the Cestode.

They self and cross fertilize.

48

Band of Ciliated tentacles used for respiration and feeding.

Lophophores

49

Organisms that posses Lophophores are known as?

Lophophorates

50

What Body plan (coelom) does the Lophorate have?

Eucoelomate

51

Describe the symmetry of the clade lophotrochozoa

Bilateral

52

Describe the blasticity (Number) of the clade lophotrochozoa

Triploblastic (3 germ layers)

53

Phylum Rotifera, Phylum Ectoprocta, and Phylum Brachiopoda all belong to which clade?

Protostome lophotrochozoan clade

54

Approximately how many species does the phylum Rotifera posses?

2000

55

What is the body plan (Coelom) of the phylum Rotifera?

Pseudocoelomate

56

Where does the Pseudocoelom of the Phylum Rotifera come from?

Blastocoel

57

Describe the organ system of Rotifers.

They have a well developed organs.

58

Which part of the Rotifer is described as a cilited crown.

card image

Corona

59

What organ do Rotifers use to grind food?

card image

Mastax

60

What type of digestive system does the phylum Rotifera have?

Complete Digestive tract.

61

A network of dead-end tubules lacking internal openings found in the phylum Rotifera and function in Osmoregulation.

card image

Protonephridial tubules

62

Which cells are at the end of the Protonephridial tubules?

Flame cells

63

Describe the size of Rotifers.

Microscopic

64

Describe the nervous system and sensory organs of Rotifers.

They have a centralized Nervous system and Eyespots.

65

What kind environment can Rotifers survive?

Harsh Enivironments

66

Are Rotifers Dioecious or Monoecious?

Dioecious

67

Describe the Reproductive features of a Rotifer.

They can be sexual or Parthenogenic (females lay female eggs).

68

In Rotifers, Amictic eggs have what characteristic?

They are diploid eggs that produce females

69

In Rotifers, Mictic eggs have what characteristic?

They are Haploid eggs that produce males

70

What protective ability does the fertilized egg of a Rotifer have?

The ability to encyst.

71

The Phylum referred to as 'wheel bearing'.

Rotifera

72

Ectoprocts are also known as______________ or _______________

Bryozoans/Moss Animals

73

Are the organisms in the phylum ectoprocta solitary or colonial?

Colonial

74

Where does the Anus of ectoprocts lie?

outside of the lophophore

75

Which colonies do ectoprocts resemble?

The Hydroid colonies.

76

Ectoprocts consist of a body known as_________and they live in a____________

Zooid/Zoecium

77

In Ectoprocts, Cystids do what?

Form the Zoecium

78

In Ectoprocts, Polypides are used for what?

Feeding

79

Describe the body plan of the ectoprocts (coelom).

Eucoelomate

80

Describe the digestive system of the ectoprocts.

Compete gut.

81

Describe the organ system of Ectoprocts.

They have no respiratory, vascular, or excretory organs.

82

A means to reproduce asexually used by ectoprocts in which cells are encased in a chitinous covering so that they can survive unfavorable conditions.

Statoblast

83

Where do the eggs of ectoprocts fertilize?

inside zoecia

84

Describe 2 reproductive features of ectoprocts.

  • They are hermaphrodictic
  • They can brood young
85

Brachiopods are also known as what?

Lamp shells

86

How many living Brachiopods are there?

325

87

How many fossil species of Brachiopods are there?

12,000

88

What is the body plan of Brachiopods (Coelom).

Eucoelomate

89

Brachiopods use this for feeding and respiration

Lophophore

90

What are the two types of brachipods?

Articulate and inarticulate.

91

Describe the orientation of the valves of the Phylum Brachipoda.

They are unequal

92

Brachiopods with toothed hinges and simple opening and closing muscles

Articulate Brachiopods

93

Brachiopods with untoothed hinges and complex opening and closing muscles

Inarticuate Brachiopods.

94

Brachiopods and Ectroprocts are a part of which phylum?

Lophophorate Phylum

95

Describe the Symmetry of the Phylum Mollusca.

Bilateral Symmetry

96

Describe the Digestive system of the Phylum Mollusca.

It has a complete gut

97

Describe the Body plan (coelom) of the phylum Mollusca.

it is Eucoelomate.

98

Describe the Clade the Mollusca is a part of.

They're of the Protostome Lophotrochozoan clade and have trochophore larvae.

99

The 'true coelom' of the phylum mollusca, is eventually reduced to what?

Hemocoel

100

Hemocoels are also known as what?

'blood' space

101

What type of circulatory system does the Phylum Mollusca posses.

An open circulatory system.

102

What type of kidney does the phylum Mollusca have?

Metanephridia

103

Describe the sensory system of the phylum mollusca.

It has a well developed nervous system and sense organs

104

Describe the two features of the reproductive aspect of the phylum Mollusca.

  1. They reproduce Sexually
  2. Some of them are Hermaphroditic
105

How many living species are in the phylum mollusca?

90,000

106

The Phylum Mollusca are known to be _________________ very important and have a value of $________ for the eastern seaboard of the U.S

Economically/$861

107

The Phylum Mollusca has a great diversity in ______and ______ _______

Size/Body Shapes

108

The 'Head-Foot' of the Mollusc is used for what 3 functions?

  1. Feeding
  2. Sensory
  3. Locomotor
109

The Radula in the 'head-foot' is used for what?

feeding

110

The muscular foot in the 'head-foot' is used for what?

locomotor

111

The organs within the mollusc are known as what?

The Visceral mass

112

What are the two functions of the mantle in molluscs?

  1. It secretes shell
  2. protects the Viscera
113

What does the mantle enclose in molluscs?

the mantle cavity

114

In molluscs, respiratory organs contain what?

Ctinidia (gills)

115

What four organ systems does the mollusc posses?

  1. Digestive
  2. Circulatory
  3. Excretory
  4. Reproductive
116

What is the excretory organ of the phylum mollusca?

Metanephridia

117

In Molluscs, the nephrostome opens to the ____________ and exits out the ___________ ___________

Coelom/ Mantle Cavity

118

Radula are found only in.....

Molluscs

119

In molluscs, A cartilage which underlies and supports the radula, a ribbon of teeth

Odontophore

120

A 'Ribbon of teeth'.

Radula

121

What are the 4 classes of the phylum Mollusca.

  1. Polyplacophora
  2. Bivalvia
  3. Gastropoda
  4. Cephalopda
122

Describe the Shell of the class Polyplacorphora.

It has 8 overlapping plates

123

What covers the margins of the class polyplacorphora?

A mantle

124

What are 5 examples of organisms included in the class Gastropoda?

  1. Whelks
  2. conchs
  3. Limpets
  4. Snails
  5. Slugs
125

how many living species are within the class gastropoda.

70,000

126

What is the shell of the Class Gastropoda secreted by?

The mantle

127

Describe the valve of the shell of the class gastropoda.

it is a univalve

128

When a gastropod shell twists to the right, it is.....

Dextral

129

When a Gastropod shell twists to the left. it is.......

Sinistral

130

What Covers the aperture of the shell of the Gastropod?

Operculum

131

What are the two functions of the shell of a Gastropod?

  1. Feeding
  2. Adaptation for terrestiality
132

What are 4 examples of organisms included in the class cephalopoda.

  1. Octopus
  2. Squid
  3. Nautilus
  4. Cuttlefish
133

Which organ does a cephalopod use for locomotion?

Siphon

134

Describe the circulatory system of cephalopods.

Closed circulatory system

135

Describe the nervous system of the cephalopod.

Well developed nervous system and sensory organs

136

Describe the reproductive characteristics of the cephalopod.

  1. Sexual
  2. Dioecious
137

The fluid that is used in invertebrates for the purposes of circulation

Hemolymph

138

Describe the chambered nautilus

  1. It has separate chambers
  2. It has 90 tentacles without suckers
139

What clade does the phylum annelida belong to?

Lophotrochozoan protostomes

140

What body plan (coelom) do annelids have?

Eucoelomate

141

Annelids are also known as....

'little rings' or 'segmented worms'

142

The phenomenon of having a linear series of body segments fundamentally similar in structure.

Metamerism

143

Metameric segments are referred to as

Metameres

144

What type of skeletons do Annelids have

Hydrostatic skeleton (except leeches)

145

What type of digestive system do Annelids have?

Complete gut

146

What type of circulatory system do Annelids have?

Closed

147

What type of nervous system do Annelids have?

Centralized nervous systems

148

Stiff bristles present on the body of Annelids, they help them to attach to the surface and prevent backsliding during peristaltic motion.

Chitinous setae

149

How do annelids undergo respiration?

via skin, gills, or parapodia

150

How do Annelids undergo excretion?

Via a paired metanephridia (nephridia).

151

Describe the 3 reproductive aspects of annelids. (sexuality, monoecious or dioecious?)

  1. They Asexual and sexual
  2. Some have separate sexes
  3. Some are hermaphrodites
152

What are the 3 classes of the phylum Annelida?

  1. Polychaeta
  2. Oligochaeta
  3. Hirundinida
153

Describe the Hydrostatic skeleton of an annelid.

  • It is an open space for organ development.
  • Muscles also contract against the fluid filled space (coelomic cavity).
154

Describe the body plan (not coelom) of annelids.

It has a two part head

155

Name the 2 part heads of annelids.

  1. Prostomium
  2. Peristomium
156

About how many species are within the phylum annelida?

15,000 species

157

Describe the habitat of the class polychaeta.

Mostly marine

158

About how many species are within the class Polychaeta

10,000

159

Describe 3 features that the class polychaeta has.(Anatomy, reproductive, movement)

  1. They have a parapodia with setae
  2. The have no clitelum
  3. They can either be errant or sedentary
160

What 2 types of feeding do Polychaets undergo?

  1. Deposit Feeding
  2. Suspension feeding
161

Are Polychaet monoecious or Dioecious?

Monoecious.

162

Describe the habitat of the class oligochaeta.

They can be freshwater or terrestrial.

163

How many species are within the class oligochaeta?

3000+

164

Describe the 2 reproductive aspects of the class oligochaeta (monoecious or dioecious?, sexual anatomy).

  1. They are Monoecious
  2. They have a clitellum
165

What are the five structures used by Oligochaets to feed?

  1. Crop
  2. Gizzard
  3. Intestine
  4. Typhlosole
  5. Chlorogogen cells
166

The crop in Oligochaets are used for what?

storing food

167

The Gizzard in Oligochaets are used for what?

Grinding food.

168

The Intestine in Oligochaets are used for what?

absorption

169

The Chlorogogen cells in oligochaets are used for what?

Distribution of Nutrients

170

What do Oligochaets use for excretion?

Nephridia.

171

Describe the Habitat of the class Hirudinea.

  • Mostly Freshwater
  • Some Marine
  • Some Terrestial
172

About How many Species are within the class Hirudinea?

500

173

Describe the nature of the segment of the class hirudinea.

  • They have a fixed number of segments
  • usually 34
174

What is the coelom of the Hirudines filled with?

Connective tissue

175

Describe the anatomical feature of the Hirudines.

  • They have no Parapodia
  • No septa
  • No setae
  • They have 1 0r 2 suckers
176

Describe the reproductive features of Hirudines.

  • They have a temporary Clitellum
  • They are Monoecious
177

Describe the symbiotic relationships of the class Hirudinea.

  • They are Parasitic
  • They are Predaceous
178

What protein is the exoskeleton of the phylum nematoda made of?

Collagen

179

What is the synapomorphy of the phylum Nematoda?

They all have a cuticle made of collagen

180

Describe the habitats of the phylum nematoda.

  1. Marine
  2. Fresh Water
  3. Terrestrial
181

Describe the size of most Nematodes.

They are microscopic

182

Describe the process of Ecdysis in Nematodes.

They shed their collagenous cuticle.

183

Describe the body plan (coelom) of Nematodes.

pseudocoelomate

184

Describe the skeleton of Nematodes

They have a hydrostatic Skeleton

185

Are Nematodes Dioecious or Monoecious?

Dioecious.

186

Describe the sensory system of nematodes.

They have a nervous system and sense organs.

187

Which are the only muscles that contract in Nematodes?

Longitudinal Muscle

188

What are the five parasitic Nematodes?

  1. Roundworms
  2. Hookworm
  3. Trichinella
  4. Pinworm
  5. Filarial worms
189

How many Humans are infected with roundworms each year?

1.27 billion

190

How are roundworms contracted?

Through soil

191

Describe a feature of the hookworm.

They have a horny plates

192

What disease is caused by Trichinella?

Trichinosis

193

How is Trichinosis contracted?

  • By eating raw or undercooked meat
  • Then the juveniles encyst in the muscle.
194

How many cases a year are there of trichinosis in the US?

12

195

How many children and adults contract pinworms each year in the US?

  • 30% children
  • 16% adults
196

Filarial worms use what to pass a disease?

A vector (Insect)

197

Where do Humans host Mirofilariae?

In the bloodstream.

198

What Disease do filarial worms cause?

Elephantiasis

199

William Campbell and Satoshi Omuru discovered what?

Avermectin (Ivermectin) derived from streptomyces that kills filarial worms.

200

Tu you you discovered what?

Artemisin derived from a plant and it treats malaria.