Digestived Sysrtem

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The Language of Medicine
Chapters 5, 6
Digestived Sysrtem
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1

an/o

anus

2

append/o

appendix

3

appendic/o

appendix

4

bucc/o

cheek

5

cec/o

cecum

6

celi/o

belly, abdomen

7

cheil/o

lip

8

labi/o

lip

9

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

10

choledoch/o

common bile duct

11

colon/o

colon

12

dent/I

tooth

13

duoden/o

duodenum

14

enter/o

intestines (usually small intestine)

15

esophag/o

esophagus

16

faci/o

face

17

gastr/o

stomach

18

gingiv/o

gums

19

gloss/o

tongue

20

hepat/o

liver

21

ile/o

ileum

22

jejun/o

jejunum

23

lepar/o

abdomen (laparoscopy)

24

lingui/o

tongue (sublingual)

25

mandibul/o

lower jaw, mandible

26

odont/o

tooth

27

or/o

mouth

28

palat/o

palate

29

pancreat/o

pancreas

30

peritone/o

peritoneum

31

pharyng/o

throat

32

proct/o

anus and rectum

33

pylor/o

pyloric sphincter

34

rect/o

rectum

35

sialaden/o

salivary gland

36

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

37

stomat/o

mouth

38

uvul/o

uvula

39

amyl/o

starch

40

bili/o

gall, bile

41

bilirubin/o

bilirubin (bile pigment)

42

chol/e

gall, bile

43

chlorhydr/o

hydrochloric acid (achlorihydria)

44

gluc/o

sugar

45

glyc/o

sugar

46

glycogen/o

glycogen, animal starch

47

lip/o

fat, lipid

48

lith/o

stone

49

prote/o

protein

50

py/o

pus

51

sial/o

saliva, salivary

52

steat/o

fat

53

-ase

enzyme

54

-chezia

defecation, elimination of wastes

55

-iasis

abnormal condition

56

-prandial

meal

57

gastrointestinal tract

path of food from the mouth to the anus

58

Digestion

breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms

59

Absorption

passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the blood stream

60

amino acids

building blocks of proteins produced when proteins are digested

61

Amylase

enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch

62

Appendix

Blind pouch hanging from the cecum

63

Bile

digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder that emulsifies large fat globules

64

Bilirubin

pigment released by the liver in bile

65

Bowel

intestine

66

canine teeth

Pointed, "dog tooth"-like teeth, next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.

67

Cecum

First part of the large intestine

68

Colon

Large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum.

69

common bile duct

Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.

70

Defecation

elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum

71

Deglutition

swallowing

72

Dentin

Major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root

73

Duodenum

First part of the small intestine

74

Elimination

Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials.

75

Emulsification

physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat

76

Enamel

hard outermost layer of a tooth

77

Enzyme

a chemical that speeds up the process a reaction between substances. digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances

78

Esophagus

tube connecting the throat to the stomach

79

fatty acids

substances produced when fats are digested

80

Feces

solid wastes stools

81

Gallbladder

small sac under the liver stores bile

82

Glucose

simple sugar

83

Glycogen

starch glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells

84

hydrochloric acid

substance produced by the stomach necessary for the digestion of food

85

Ileum

third part of the small intestine

86

Incisor

one of the four front teeth in the dental arch

87

Insulin

hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver

88

Jejunum

second part of the small intestine.

89

Lipase

pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

90

Liver

large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen that secretes bile; stores sugar iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out red blood cells

91

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also cardiac sphincter

92

Mastication

chewing

93

molar teeth

the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch

94

premolar teeth

fourth and fifth teeth before the molars

95

Palate

roof of the mouth, the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.

96

Pancreas

organ under the stomach produce insulin and enzymes

97

Papillae

small elevations on the tongue; a small nipple like elevation

98

parotid gland

salivary gland within the cheek just anterior to the the ear

99

Peristalsis

rhythmic contractions of the tubes if the GI tract and other tubular structures

100

Pharynx

throat the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose

101

portal vein

large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines

102

Protease

enzyme that digests proteins

103

Pulp

soft tissue within a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels

104

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscle at the end of the stomach near the duodenum

105

Pylorus

distal region of the stomach opening to the duodenum

106

Rectum

last section of the large intestine connecting to the end of the colon and the anus

107

Rugae

ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach

108

Saliva

digestive juice produced by salivary glands

109

salivary glands

parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands

110

sigmoid colon

fourth and last S-shaped segment just before the rectum

111

Sphincter

Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passageway or closes a natural opening

112

Stomach

muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus; parts are fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section)

113

Triglycerides

Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol

114

Uvula

Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate

115

Villi

microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream

116

Anorexia

lack of appetite

117

Ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

118

Borborygmus

Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract

119

Constipation

difficulty in passing stools

120

Diarrhea

Frequent passage of loose, watery stools

121

Dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

122

Erucation

gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth

123

Flatus

gas expelled through the anus

124

Hematochezia

passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum

125

Jaundice

yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood

126

melena

black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood

127

Nausea

unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually associated with a tendency to vomit

128

Steatorrhea

fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter

129

aphthous stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers

130

herpetic stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus

131

dental caries

tooth decay

132

oral leukoplakia

white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth

133

periodontal disease

inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone

134

Achalasia

failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) to relax

135

esophageal varices

swollen varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus

136

gastric carcinoma

malignant tumor of the stomach

137

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach

138

Hernia

protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it

139

peptic ulcer

open sore or lesion of the mucus membrane of the stomach or duodenum

140

anal fistula

abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus

141

colonic polyposis

polyps protrude from the mucus membrane of the colon

142

colorectal cancer

...

143

adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both

...

144



...

145

crohn disease

chronic inflammation of the digestive tract

146

Diverticulosis

abnormal side pockets in the intestinal wall

147

Dysentery

painful swollen intestines

148

Hemorrhoids

swollen twisted varicose veins in the rectal region

149

Ileus

failure of the peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines

150

Intussusception

telescoping of the intestines

151

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension

152

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers

153

Cecum

1st part of the large intestine

154

Sphincter

ring of muscle

155

What is it called when you have a bariatric bypass, what happens?

Anastomosis can't get B-12

156

Removal of the colon

Colectomy

157

2 names for lips

labi/o
cheil/o

158

Stomat/o

mouth

159

Periodontist

Dentist specializes in the mouth

160

Anorexia

lack of appetite

161

Muscle spasm

sudden muscle movement

162

Diverticulitis

pain & rectal bleeding are symptoms. Abnormal outpunching's in the intestinal wall of the colon

163

colonic polyps

benign growths, protrude from the mucus membrane of the colon

164

esophageal varices

swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus

165

NPO

Nothing by mouth

166

Stenorrhea

fat in the feces

167

GERD

Gastrointestinesophogeal reflux disease

168

ptysis

Spitting

169

rrhapy

suture

170

lysis

breaking down, breaking up ... Blood distribution

171

amylase

1st function when you take a bite/enzyme in the mouth

172

outpouching

diverticular

173

hemacult
gwacic

a test to check for blood in the stool

174

duedodeum

after food leaves the stomach

175

pain in the right lower quadrant

appendix / apendisitis

176

polyps

mass of tissue in the colon

177

melena

tarry stool

178

H-Pylori

Peptic ulcer

179

cholelithiosis

condition of gallstones

180

Proctologist

rectum abnormality

181

H.Plyori meds

PrePax

182

4 functions of the digestive system

Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
Elimination

183

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

184

hematochezia

passage of fresh, bright red blood in the rectum

185

Glands produce how many liters of saliva daily

1.5 liters

186

Digestion begins & ends

Mouth --> anus

187

Where is bile stored

gallbladder

188

Where is bile manufactured?

liver

189

Large intestines functions

cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum

190

small intestine

duodenum
jejunum
ileum

191

what causes Hep B

blood transfer
sexual contact
contaminated needles

192

HBV stands for

Hepatitis B Virus

193

what causes Hep C

blood transfer
contaminated needles

194

Duodenum

1st part of the small intestine
1 ft long
receives food from the stomach
receives bile from the liver

195

Laboratory Tests

Amylase & Lipase tests
liver function tests (LFT)
Stool test
Stool guaiac test or hemoccult test

196

Stenosis

...

197

What position do you lay for a colonoscopy

Sims

198

Hemacult

check for blood in the stool use a Gwacic Tset

199

Right Lower Quadrant

McBurneys (Appendicitis)

200

Conditions of gallstone

cholelithiosis