Labs

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1

LDH

Lactic Dehydrogenase

released during cellular damage of many body tissue

2

AFP

Alpha Fetoprotein

protein synthesized by the fetal liver

3

PT

Prothrombin Time

the time it takes for plasma to clot

4

INR

International Normalized Ratio

corrects for variations that would occur with different thromboplastin reagents. This standardizes the PT test

5

Aminotransferases

Aminotransferases

liver cell damage released into blood

does not correlate with extent of damage

6

AST

SGOT

Aspartate Aminotransferase

present in liver, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and brain

non-specific for liver disease

but very sensitive, elevated in almost all significant hepatocellular disease

7

ALT

SGPT

Alanine Aminotransferase

present in high concentration within the liver.

ALT is more specific for liver disease

8

GGT

Gamma Glutanmyl Transpeptidase

increased in liver tissue disease and biliary obstruction

9

Increased GGT + increased ALT =

biliary obstruction

10

Increased GGT + increased ALP =

Hepatocellular disease

11

Bilirubin

end product of hemoglobin breakdown

12

Conjugation

removing albumin from bilirubin to make it soluable

13

indirect Bilirubin

before processed by liver

hemolysis (destruction of RBC)

14

direct bilirubin

processed by the liver

increased in obstruction

15

ALP

Alkaline Phosphatase

enzyme concentrated in the bile ducts

elevated in biliary obstruction

elevated in bone growth (children & pregnancy)

16

Serum Creatinine

break-down product of skeletal muscles, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys

dependent on glomerular filtration rate

most specific to renal disease

17

BUN

Blood Urea Nitrogen

Urea is waste product of protein metabolism (liver) filtered out by the kidneys

18

Azotemia

decrease in glomerular filtration rate resulting in increases of BUN and creatinine

19

What is the most likely pathology is unconjugated bilirubin is elevated?

hepatic injury

hemolytic disease

20

What is the most likely pathology is conjugated bilirubin is elevated?

obstruction of distal biliary tract distal

21

What is the most likely pathology is ALP is elevated?

obstruction of the distal biliary tract

22

What is the most likely pathology is AST & ALT is elevated?

Primary liver disease *in acute stage

23

Which lab, AST & ALT stays elevated longer in liver disease and is used to evaluate jaundice?

ALT

24

If Prothrombin time is elevated what should you expect in the biliary tree?

acute cholecystitis

bile duct injury

GB carcinoma

prolonged biliary obstruction

25

What is the most likely pathology is amylase is elevated?

pancreatitis acute

26

What is the most likely pathology is lipase is elevated?

acute pancreatitis and carcinoma

27

Which lab, amylase or lipase stays elevated longer?

lipase

28

What is the most likely pathology is lipase is elevated?

serum creatinine elevates with renal dysfunction due to large number of nephrons being detroyed

29

What is the most likely pathology is BUN is elevated?

acute or chronic disease

30

What is the most likely pathology if urinalysis is elevated?

chronic renal disease

31

What is the most likely pathology if WBC is elevated?

acute inflamation

hemorrage

carcinoma

acute leukemia

32

What is the most likely pathology if RBC is decreased?

acute blood loss

hodgin's disease

hemolytic and pernicious anemia

33

What is the most likely pathology if RBC is increased?

polycythemia

34

What is the most likely pathology if hematocrit is decreased?

anemia

cirrhosis

35

What is indicated with elevated PSA and at what level?

cancer of prostate

20 ng/ml

36

What is the most likely pathology if hematocrit is increased?

COPD

polycythemia vera

dehydration