CJ 241D Final study guide

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Crime Prevention
Chapters 10-16
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(Prediction for secondary prevention) Risk factors and prediction

Define risk factor

Identify and intervene factors most likely to influence on individual's choices and behavior.


(Prediction for secondary prevention) Risk factors and prediction

Identify the typical categories and risk factors that fall with each

  • Individual
  • Family
  • peer
  • community
  • Psychological/ personality and biological

(Prediction for secondary prevention 10) Risk factors and prediction

Describe the relationship between Risk Factor and prediction?

Risk factor are indicators of who may become deviant in the future, but prediction is a relevant part of many activities of the criminal justice system however, prediction is not often a part of the decision.


(Situational Crime prevention Ch11)

Describe situational Crime Prevention

Is aimed at specific problems, places, person or times

Identification, especially repeat victimization


(Situational Crime prevention Ch11) Theoretical Foundations

Rational Choice theory

Individual make decision on whether to commit on offense based on an array of inputs.


(Situational Crime prevention Ch11) Theoretical Foundations

Routine Activity theory

Daily activity of individuals results in the convergence of motivated offenders with suitable targets in the obsence of guardians


(Situational Crime prevention Ch11) Theoretical Foundations

Crime pattern theory

Posits that criminal behavior fits pattern that can be understood in term of when and where crime occurs.

Combines relational choice, routine activity and environmental factor.


(Situational Crime prevention Ch11) Theoretical assumption

identify the theoretical assumptions underlying situational crime prevention .

Crime event (acts) typically require the convergence of motivation offenders and potential target/ victim at a specific place and time.


What are the theories that serve as the foundation for situational crime prevention?

  1. Rational choice theory
  2. Routine activity theory
  3. Crime pattern theory

(Partnerships for Crime Prevention Ch 12) Partnerships & the police

Describe Partnerships for Crime prevention

Purpose, and how they function: few impact evaluations, most are process evaluation and not true community policing.

Participants: Specialized multi-Agency response team (SMART)


(Partnerships for Crime Prevention Ch 12) Partnerships & the police

List and describe weaknesses of partnerships

  • Difficult to implement
  • Slow responding
  • Not representative of the community.

(Partnerships for Crime Prevention Ch 12) Partnerships & the police

What are the key Factors for building successful partnerships?

  • Identify strong leaders and managers
  • Agree on the problem and intervention
  • Recruit qualifies staff
  • Research the problem
  • Build grass root support
  • Identify adequate funding and resources
  • Provide good oversight of project implementation
  • Evaluate the efforts.

(Drugs, Crime, & Crime Prevention Ch13) Drug & crime Prevention

Discuss how drug abuse fits within primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Crime Prevention?



(Drugs, Crime, & Crime Prevention Ch13) The drugs- Crime connection

Discuss what is known about the relationship between drugs and crime? identify the FOUR Hypothesized models as well.

A strong correction between the two behaviors means that drugs can be used as a predictor of other criminal behavior

4 Hypothesized:

  1. Drug used causes criminal activity
  2. Criminal activity causes drug use
  3. There is a reciprocal relationship in which both use drug use and criminal activity cause one another
  4. Spurious with other factors, the same one causing drug use and crime.

(Drugs, Crime, & Crime Prevention Ch13) Interventions & Prevention

Identify the Three general areas that approaches to addressing drug abuse fall within.

  • Law Enforcement
  • Treatment
  • Prevention

(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14)

Explain how school fits with Secondary Prevention

School problems can concerns can be used to predict possible problem s later in life


(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14) Theoretical Explanation

Describe the theoretical relationship between school failure and delinquency?

The ability of a student to achieve can be effected by factors idependent of the school


(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14)Theoretical Explanation

Recall that intervening factors are believed to shape school achievement. Describe how each of the following factors contribute to understand the relationship between school achievement and delinquency?

IQ: School achievement, Academic performance and attitude towards school.

School Practices: have the potential to act as a barrier against success

  • Tracking
  • Poor Instruction
  • Irrelevant instruction
  • Method of evaluation

(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14)Theoretical Explanation

Victimization In School

  • Behavior is aimed at the course of the problem
  • Able to show off or bring attention to him or herself

(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14) Victimization in school

Identify and describe the FOUR types of bullying behavior?

  • Verbal
  • Physical
  • Social
  • Cyber-bullying

(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14) School Program for Delinquency Prevention

School Atmosphere

Altering the general school environment is one suggestion foe addressing misconduct in school

Allow everyone to take ownership of both the solutions and the successes of controlling problems


(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14) School Program for Delinquency Prevention

Conflict Management/ Resolution

Teaching students how to handle conflict and take proper choices when faced with difficult situations ( such as peer pressure to use drugs or commit a crime) is a popular intervention that takes a variety of forms.


(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14) School Program for Delinquency Prevention

Alternative School

Represent a major attempt to dispel the negative experiences of many problems in youths.

The provision of a positive learning atmosphere which increases feelings of success within an atmosphere of worth and acceptance.


(The school and crime Prevention Ch 14) School Program for Delinquency Prevention

School Resources officers/ Police in schools


75% Of schools have either security guards or police officers on the premises.


(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15)

Explain how Specific deterrence and Icapacitation fit within tertiary prevention?

Specific Deterrence & Incapacitation seeks to prevent crime through intervention with individuals who have already harmed society and shown a disposition towards deviant activity.


(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15) Incapacitation

Describe Incapacitation and define each of the two forms of incapacitation?

Seeks to prevent future crime, this is achieved through physical control of the individual.


(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15) Incapacitation


Same sentences imposed on individuals exhibiting the same behavior.

Punishment is applied to all similar offenders in an efford to reduce subsequent.


(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15) Incapacitation


  • identifying high-risk offenders and subjective them to intervention.
  • Offenders deemed to be a greater threat to society receive harsher punishment

(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15) Incapacitation

Incarceration is most commonly associated with Incapacitaion. However, there are other types of Incapacitation such as electronic Monitoring. Describe electronic Monitoring?

  • Incapacitation can be achieved without incarceration
  • Home confinement using electronic Monitoring is an alternative to incapacitation
  • One solution to increased supervision and protection of society.

(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15) Incapacitation

Discuss the advantage of electronic monitoring

  • Alleviant overcrowding in correctional institutions
  • Enhances ability to supervise offenders in the community.
  • Reduce cost of monitoring offenders in the community
  • It is an intermediate level of punishment
  • More humane than icapacitaion
  • Assist in reinteiration of the offender back into society.

(Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation Ch 15) Incapacitation

Identify Potential Issues and concerns of electronic Monitoring

  • labor- Intensive system
  • Net widening
  • Public id at risk
  • Government is at risk.

(Rehabilitation Ch 16)

Identify the outcome measured in rehabilitation research (know which outcome is related to Tertiary Crime Prevention)

  • Those that do not look to recidivism or deviant behavior.
  • Educational vocational achievement
  • change in self-esteem
  • Attitudinal shifts, psychological adjustment
  • Community adjustment, and costs of intervention.

(Rehabilitation Ch 16) Cognitive Behavior Interventions

Identify the general principles of effective programs

  • Interventions should target known predictors of deviant behavioral and recidivism
  • Interventions should be behavioral and address the cognitive processes that lead to antisocial activity.

(Rehabilitation Ch 16) Restorative Justice

Describe restorative Justice

  • Seeks to repair the harm that was done to the victim and the community
  • Offender can be repaired if participates in the process

(Rehabilitation Ch 16) List common element of restorative Justice?

  • The restorative justice process involves the offender, the victim and the community in negotiations and dialogue aimed at restitution, reconciliation and restoration of harmony.

Tertiary Crime Prevention

Deals with actual offenders and involves intervention... in such a fashion that they will not commit.


Individuals perceive Risk

  • Ignorance of law
  • Lack of knowledge about chances for arrest and sanction

Developmental prevention

  • Target the potential of Individuals to become criminal
  • Criminality and deviant ate the result of early life experiences and learning


  • Crime is caused by factors beyond the control of the individual
  • individuals have little choice in their behavior

Skills training goals

  • Teach children how to recognize problem situations and react appropriately
  • Self-control and anger management feeling recognition, Image building, identify need and concerns of others, problem solving.

What are the two types of Predictions fails

  1. Clinical
  2. Actuarial

Family risk factor

Family situations and factors influence immediate care and later behavior of individuals


Biological Risk factor

Growing interest among some criminologists in exploring relationship behavior biology and deviance.


Repeat Victimization

People and/or place victimized more than once within some period of time subsequent to an initial victimization event

Six types:

  • Target
  • tactical
  • Temporal
  • Crime type
  • Spatial
  • Offender