Pharmacology and the Nursing Process7: MAE Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by jess_mf29
186 views
MJC ADN 270 sp 2016
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Pharmaceutics

how formulation of drugs influences metabolism of drugs

  • disintegration: tablet breakdown
  • dissolution : dissolving of particles before absorption
  • ph balance of GI tract: occurs faster in more acidic environments
2

Pharmacokinetics

what the body does to the drugs

  • absorption---->stomach, intestine, liver
  • distribution---->blood stream
  • metabolizing---->liver
  • excretion ------> kidney
3

Pharmacodynamics

what the drug does to the body

  • MOA
  • therapeutic effect
  • contradictions
4

pharmacotherapeutics

use of the drugs and indications for drug use

5

Infusion

  • continuous flow of fluid into pts body sometimes called a "drip" or "drip line"
  • slow, intentional introduction of fluid into a vein
6

hypotonic

referring to a solution that has a lower osmolarity than body fluids have

7

hypertonic

referring to a solution that has a higher osmolarity than body fluids have

8

Push

  • drug/fluid put into syringe and directly pushed into IV line; time sensitive ex 5ml/5 mins
  • "bolus"
9

bolus

  • amount of medication given very quickly
  • to a dose given all at once
10

IV Piggyback (IVPB)

  • usually smaller act of fluid, "piggyback" and given with infusion
  • "secondary"---> infusion stops but there is still some secondary
  • Most IVPB medications come in vials that are added to the intravenous bag just before administration
  • simultaneous infusion of IV medications and other intermittent medications
11

iv flush

  • make sure line is open before and after medication is administered (done with saline)
12

heparin/saline lock

an intravenous catheter inserted into a vein and left in place for the intermittent administration of medication through its port or as an open line for emergency situations and intermittently flushed with normal saline solution to maintain patency

13

On a normal sized pt what angle is lovenox given? what type of injection is it ?

  • no matter what always given @ 90 degree
  • subcutaneous
14

on a normal sized pt that is receiving an insulin injection what angle do you injection?

45

15

Parenteral route:

  • intravenous (fastest delivery into blood circulation)
  • intramuscular
  • subcutaneous
  • intradermal
  • intraarterial
  • intrathecal
  • intraarticular
16

Topical routes:

  • skin
  • eyes
  • ears
  • noses
  • lungs (ihn)
  • rectum
  • vagina
17

enteral route

the drug is absorbed into the systemic circulation through the oral or gastric mucosa or small intestine :

  • oral (first pass effect)
  • sublingual
  • buccal
  • rectal
18

Drug absorption of oral preparations (fastest to slowest)

FASTEST TO SLOWEST:

  1. oral disintegration, buccal tablets, & oral soluble wafers
  2. liquids, elixirs, and syrups
  3. suspensions
  4. powders
  5. capsules
  6. tablets
  7. coated tablets
  8. enteric-coated tablets
19

What are some non-first- pass routes that by pass liver and therefore have their fully bioavailable?

  • IV
  • aural
  • inhaled
  • intraarterial
  • IM
  • intranasal
  • intraocular
  • intravaginal
  • SubQ
  • sublingual/buccal
  • transdermal/topical
20

What route of administration is affected by the first pass effect, making the drug less bioavailable?

PO

21

first pass effect

little bit of drug is absorbed before it makes it to the blood stream, making it less effective or less bioavailable; mainly occurs with PO meds

22

bioavailability

term used to express the extent of drug absorption

23

areas of rapid distribution

heart, liver, kidneys, brain (more blood flow)

24

areas of slow distribution

muscle, skin, fat

25

mechanism of action

  • drugs can produce a therapeutic effect on cells or tissues in various ways (often how medications are categorized)
26

therapeutic effect

the desired or intended effect of a medication on cells or tissue

27

contradictions

any condition that renders a treatment or drug to be undesirable or improper

  • what you need to know/do/assess before administering drug
28

peak

when drug is at its best working and highest but safe therapeutic blood levels

29

trough

when drug is at lowest blood levels but still working

30

prophylactic therapy

drug therapy provided to prevent illness or there outcomes during a planned event i.e. antibiotics given pre op

31

empiric therapy

based on experience not fact; i.e. giving a broad spectrum antibiotics before C&S results are received

32

actue therapy

anything a pt would require immediately to maintain normality

33

maintenance therapy

may help to prevent the progression of a disease or condition

ex:hypertensive medications oral contraceptives

34

therapeutic index

  • ratio toxic level to level that provides therapeutic benefits
35

black box warning

  • warning label required by FDA that tells that there is reasonable evidence relating drug to serious hazards; given with caution if given
36

adverse effects

  • A general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs.
37

allergic reactions

  • hypersensitivity reaction involve pt immune system recognizing the drugs molecule, its metabolites or other ingredient as a dangerous foreign substance
38

adverse drug reaction

  • ADR is any reaction to a drug that is unexpected and undesirable and occurs at therapeutic drug dosages
39

idiosyncratic reaction

  • not the result of a known pharmacologic property of a drug or of a patient allergy but instead occurs unexpectedly in a particular pt
40

teretogenic drug effects

  • drugs or other chemical result in structural defect in fetus; drugs capable of crossing the placenta and can cause drug-induced teratogenesis
41

mutagenic effects

  • permanent changes in the genetic composition of living organism and consist of alternations in chromosome structures, the # of chromosomes, or the genetic code of DNA molecules
42

carcinogenic effects

  • cancer causing effects of drugs, other chemicals, radiations or viruses
43

Intramuscular

  • deposits medication into deep muscle tissue (rich blood supply)
  • aqueous solutions: 20g to 25g
  • viscous/oil based solutions: 18g to 21g
  • 5/8 in to 1 inch: less than 130lbs (59kg)
  • 1-1.5 inch: avg wt (female 130-200. male 130 to 260)
  • larger than avg wt use 1.5 inch needle
44

what is the maximum amount that can be IM injected in the ventrogluteal site?

  • 2-3mL (occurred to book)
  • different facility have different policies but book says 3 is max
45

what is the maximum act that can be IM injected in to the deltoid?

  • 0.5 to 1 mL
46
card image

name the parts

  1. barrel
  2. tip
  3. plunger
47
card image
  1. hub
  2. shaft
  3. bevel
48

sites for IM injection

card image
  1. deltoid
  2. ventrogluteal
  3. vastus lateralis
49

Subcutaneous injection

  • deposits medication into loose CT under dermis ---->less blood vessels =medication is absorbed slower than IM
  • less than 2 mL solution (peds 0.5 @ 1 site)
50

SubQ needles

  • 25g 5/8 in @ 45 degree angle
  • 25g 1/2 inch @ 90 degree angle
  • 26-30 g @ 90 degrees for meds
51

Sub Q sites

  • outer aspect of upper arms
  • and from below costal margins to iliac crests
  • anterior aspects of thighs
  • site rotation prevents lipohypertrophy or lipoatrophy
52

Examples of subQ medications

  • epinephrine
  • insulin
  • allergy medications
  • heparins
  • some opioids
53

Intradermal ID

  • 3/8 to 5/8 inch needle
  • 25 to 27 g
  • 5 degrees to 15 degree angle
  • generally for allergic testing; PPD