Digestive System

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created 8 years ago by jenkarmata
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2012 Hesi Study guide
updated 8 years ago by jenkarmata
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College: Second year
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1

The alimentary canal or digestive tube consists of the

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mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum & anus.

2

The 8 organs/cavities that make up the alimentary canal are

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Starting at the head
1. Mouth 5. Small intestine
2. Pharynx 6. Lrg. intestine
3. Esophagus 7. Rectum
4. Stomach 8. Anus

3

What is another name for the alimentary canal?

Digestive tube

4

The accessory organs of digestion include the

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liver, pancreas & gallbladder

5

What does mastication mean?

Chewing

6

What does the saliva do to chewed food?

Lubricates & dilutes it.

7

Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands?

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Parotid gland
Sublingual gland (under tongue)
Submandibular gland (under/in mandible)

8

What enzyme does saliva contain?

Amylase

9

What does Amylase do?

Starts the digestion of complex carbohydrates.

10

We chew our food into a ball before swallowing, what is that ball called?

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Bolus

*follow the pathway of the bolus (yellow clump).

11

True/False
Constrictive muscles of the pharynx force the food into the upper portion of the esophagus, and the food is swallowed.

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~TRUE~

12

The _____ is a narrow tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach.

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esophagus

13

How many layers does the digestive tract have?

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4

14

Name the 4 layers of the digestive tract starting w/the most inner layer
1. ___________________

2. ___________________

3. ___________________

4. ___________________

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1. Most inner layer- Mucosa

2. Submucosa

3. Musularis

4. Most outer layer- Serosa

15

True/False
Food enters the stomach, where gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid that breaks down foods.

~TRUE~

16

Gastric glands secrete

hydorchloric acid

17

What does hydrochloric acid do?

Break down foods in the stomach

18

The stomach muscle churns & mixes the bolus of food, turning the mass into a soupy substance called

chyme

19

The __a__ also stores food & regulates the movement of food into the __b____.

a. stomach
b. small intestine

20

Where is food stored?

Stomach

21

The stomach regulates the movement of food into the

small intestine

22

Almost all digestion & absorption of food occurs in the

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small intestine.

23

True/False
In the small intestine food is acted on by various enzymes from the small intestine, pancreas & bile from the liver.

~TRUE~

24

The ______ also contributes water to dilute the chyme & bicarbonate ions to neutralized the acid from the stomach.

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pancreas

25

Bicarbonate ions from the pancreas

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neutralize the acid from the stomach.

26

What contributes water to dilute chyme in the small intestine?

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Stomach

27

The small intestine consists of 3 major regions:

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1. duodenum
2. jejunum
3. ileum

28

What is absorbed through the walls of the small intestine?

Nutrients

29

The amino acids & simple sugars derived from proteins & carbohydrates are

absorbed directly into the blood

30

Most of the fats are absorbed into the

lymph by the lacteals, which eventually are added to the bloodstream.

31

What happens to the fats that have been absorbed into the lymph by lacteals?

Eventually they are added to the bloodstream

32

True/False
All nutrients enter the hepatic portal vein to be routed to the liver for decontamination.

~TRUE~

33

All nutrients enter ________, to be routed to the liver for decontamination?

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Hepatic portal vein

34

All nutrients enter the hepatic portal vein to be routed to what organ?

Liver

35

Why are nutrients routed from the hepatic portal vein to the liver?

For decontamination

36

Small fingerlike projections called ____ greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal wall.

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villi

37

Which intestine reabsorbs water, stores & eliminates undigested food?

Large intestine

38

The large intestine

reabsorbs water, stores & eliminates undigested food

39

There is an abundant of what in the large intestine?

bacteria & intestinal flora

40

There is an abundant of bacteria & intestinal flora in the

large intestine

41

The large intestine is arranged into 5 portions:

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1. Ascending colon
2. Transverse colon
3. Descending colon
4. Sigmoid colon
5. Rectum

42

The opening for defecation (expelling of stool) is

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the anus

43

~SUMMARY OF VITAL & NONVITAL ROLES OF DIGESTION~

~SUMMARY OF VITAL & NONVITAL ROLES OF DIGESTION~

44

~Mouth~
Breaks up food particles
Assists in producing spoken language.

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45

~Salivary glands~
Saliva moistens & lubricates food
Amylase digest polysaccharides

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46

~Pharynx~
swallows

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47

~Esophagus~
Transports food

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48

~Stomach~
Stores & churns food
Pepsin digest protein
HCI activates enzymes, breaks up food & kills germs
Mucus protects stomach wall
Limited absorption

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49

~Liver~
Breaks down/builds up biological molecules
Stores vitamins & iron
Destroys old blood cells
Destroys poisons
Bile aids in digestion.

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50

~Gallbladder~
Stores & concentrates bile

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51

~Pancreas~
Hormones regulate blood glucose levels
Bicarbonates neutralize stomach acid
Trypsin & chymotrypsin digest proteins
Amylase digests polysaccharides
Lipase digests lipids

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52

~Small intestine~
Completes digestion
Mucus protects gut wall
Absorbs nutrients, most water
Peptidase digests proteins
Sucrases digest sugars
Amylase digest polysaccharides

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53

~Large intestine~
Reabsorbs some water & ions
Forms & stores feces

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54

~Rectum~
Stores & expels feces

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55

~Anus~
Opening for elimination of feces

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anus

56

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