Assisiting in Dermatology

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Assisting in Dermatology
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1

alopecia

partial or complete lack of hair

2

anaplastic

relating to an alteration in cells to a more primitive form; a term that describes cancer-producing cells

3

bilirubin

an orange pigment in bile; its accumulation leads to jaundice

4

cryosurgery

the technique of exposing tissue to extreme cold to produce a well-defined area of cell destruction

5

debridement

the removal of foreign material & dead damaged tissue from a wound

6

electrodesiccation

the destruction of cells & tissue by means od short high-frequent electrical sparks.

7

eschar

devitalized skin that forms a scab ora dry crust over a burn area

8

exacerbation

an increase in the seriousness of a disease, marked by greater intensity of the signs & symptoms

9

excoriated

skin that has been injured by scratching; abraded.

10

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney

11

hyperplasia

an increase in the number of normal cells

12

jaundice

a yellow discoloration of the skin & mucous membranes caused by deposits of bile pigments; these deposits of bile pigments; these deposits occur because of excess bilirubin in the blood.

13

keloid

a raised, firm scar formation caused by overgrowth of collegen at the site of a skin injury

14

keratin

a very hard, tough protein found in the hair, nails, & epidermal tissue

15

keratinocytes

the skin cells that synthesize keratin

16

leukoderma

lack of skin pigmentation, especially in patches

17

opaque

not translucent or transparent; murky

18

petechiae

small purplish hemorrhage spots on the skin

19

postherpetic neuralgia

pain that lasts longer than a month after a shingles infection & is caused by damage to the nerve the pain may last for months or years

20

Raynauds phenomenon

intermittent attacks of ischemia of extremities resulting in cyanosis numbness, tingling & pain

21

teratogen

any substance that interferes w/normal prenatal development resulting in a development abnormality

22

what's the largest organ in the body?

the skin

20 sq ft

23

Ecchymosis

a hemorrhagic skin discoloration commonly called bruising

24

Remission

the partial or complete disappearance of the clinical & subjective characteristics of a chronic or malignant disease

25

Sebum

Sebaceous glands release_________, and oily substance that lubricates the skin.

26

dermis

The epidermis is the thin uppermost layer, and the ________ is the thick layer beneath.

27

flora

A variety of microorganisms, called normal or resident _________, are found on the skin and may increase the risk of integumentary system infections.

28

impetigo

____________ is a common, contagious, superficial infection caused by streptococci or staphylococcus.



29

acne

_____________ is a disorder of the hair follicle and sebaceous gland unit.

30

eczema

_____________ is characterized by a vesicular, pruritic rash on the face, neck, elbows, and posterior knees and behind the ears.

31

albinism

.

Individuals with _________, and inherited recessive trait, are unable to produce melanin, so they have white hair and skin and lack of pigment in the iris.

32

anaplastic

Cancer cells are undifferentiated and __________ in nature.

33

bilirubin

Jaundice is caused by deposits of _______________ in the tissues, which creates an orange discoloration of the skin.

34

excoriated

A patient with an extremely pruritic skin rash may scratch so much that the area become _____________.

35

keloid

A(n)_______________ is a raised, firm scar caused by overgrowth of collagen at the site of the skin injury.



36

palliative

A patient who is given an antipruritic cream for an itchy skin lesion is receiving _________ treatment.



37

petechiae

Small purple hemmoraghes unde the skin that may resemble a rash are called __________.



38

teratogen

Accutane is and extremeley dangerous ________ that is contraindicated in women of childbearing age.

39

idiopathic

A(n) ___________disorder is one that has no know cause.



40

Raynaud's phenomenon

Ischemia of the extremeties that result in cyanosis and pain is called _____________ ______________.



41

autoimmune

SLE is a(n)__________ disorder that results when the immune system attacks the bodys connective tiddue.



42

Major skin functions

Acts as a barrier to protect vital internal organs from infection and injury. It helps dissipate heat and regulates body temp. It synthasizes vitamin D when exposed to UV rays.

43

epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue

What are the three layers of skin?

44

macule

Flat area of color change. (no elevation or depression) *freckles

45

papule

A small haard elevation of the skin (less than 0.5 cm in diameter) Rosacea allergic eczema

46

Plaque

Flat elevated surface found on skin or mucous membrane. *thrush

47

Fissure

Cracks in skin *Athletes foot.

48

Pustule

Vessicle filled with pus * acne

49

Vesicle

small blister - fluid within or under spidermis *hypervirus infection

50

Bulla

large blister (greater that 0.5 cm) *burn

51

Cyst

a closed sac in or under the skin containing fluid or semisolid material *sebaceous

52

Ulcer



Area of destruction of entire epidermis *pressure sore

53

Wheal

Type of plaque. Result is transient edema in dermis *intradermal skin test.

54

Eczema

Inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, presenting many forms of dry or moist lesions.

55

Psoriasis

chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales

56

seborrheic dermatitis

a chronic skin disease associated with seborrhea and greasy scales on the scalp or eyelids or other parts of the skin

57

contact dermatitis

a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)

58

SLE

an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms

59

Scleroderma

thickening and hardening of the skin due to new collagen formation

60

First degree burn



a burn involving only the epidermis; characterized by erythema (redness) and hyperesthesia (excessive sensation)

61

Second degree burn

destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis; characterized by pain, blisters, swelling, and discoloration.

62

Third degree burn



destroys epidermis and dermis, appear leathery and dark, no pain, insensitivity to pain due to nerve damage; fluid loss & increased risk of infection due to damage of protective barrier



63

Cellular structure "benign tumor"

Same as surrounding tissue



64

Cellular structure "malignant tumor"

Anaplastic changes and poor cellular differentiation

65

Type of growth "benign tumor"

encapsulated mass that expands over time



66

Type of growth "malignant tumor"

Infiltrates and metastasizes to other parts of the body distant spread through the blood



67

Rate of growth "benign tumor"

Usually slow; rarely fatal

68

Rate of growth "malignant tumor"

Slow, rapid, or very rapid always fatal if left untreated.



69

None

Destruction of localized tissue "benign tumor"

70

Destruction of localized tissue "malignant tumor"

Ulceration and necrosis of surrounding tissue.

71

C - in caution cancer warning signs

.



change in bowel or bladder habits

72

A - in caution cancer warning signs

A sore that does not heal

73

U - in caution cancer warning signs

Unusual bleeding or discharge

74

T - in caution cancer warning signs

Thickening or a lump in breast or elsewhere

75

I - in caution cancer warning signs

Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

76

O- - in caution cancer warning signs

Obvious change in a wart or mole

77

N - in caution cancer warning signs

Nagging cough or hoarseness

78

A - signs in malignant melanoma

Asymmetrical one half of mole doesn't match the other half.

79

B- signs in malignant melanoma

Border - edges of mole are blurred or irregular

80

C- signs in malignant melanoma



Color - mole is not same color throughout and has shade of tan, brown, black, red, white, or blue

81

D- signs in malignant melanoma

Diameter - larger than 6mm (size of pencil eraser)

82

E- signs in malignant melanoma



Elevation- a mole is no longer flat it is elevated

83

percutaneous (scratch test), intradermal (id injections), radioallergo sorbent (blood drawn and tested)

List three ways to perform and allergy test.

84

chemical pel, dermabrasion, laser resurfacing

List three different procedures for appearance modification.

85

Chicken pox

Highly contagious viral infection, Symptoms are a body rash and fever. Treat with Varivax for 18months - adult or Zostavax adult - 60+.

86

Herpes zoster acute



vesicles - pustules - ulcers - crusts (7-10 days); resolves in 2-3 weeks, intraoral - buccal mucosa and tissue bound to bone Treat with Varivax for 18months - adult or Zostavax adult - 60+.

87

Basal Cell carcinoma

.

Most common and least severe type of skin cancer; often characterized by light or pearly nodules

88

Squamous cell carcinoma

Type of skin cancer more serious than basal cell carcinoma; often characterized by scaly red papules or nodules.

89

aerobic microorganisms

lives with oxygen

90

anaerobic microorganism





without oxygen

91

tinnea pedis

Athlete's foot

92

tinea cruris

jock itch

93

Tinea corporis

ringworm

94

Tinea unguium





fungal infection of the nails (especially toenails)

95

Scabies

contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite

96

Pediculosis

infestation with lice that causes itching and dermatitis

97

list the early warning signs of malignant melanoma

  1. change in bowel habits
  2. a sore that does not heal
  3. unusual bleeding or discharge
  4. thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere
  5. indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  6. obvious change in a wart or mole
  7. nagging cough or hoarsness
98

list & describe 3 ways to perform allergy testing

  1. Percutaneous Test
  2. Intradermal Test
  3. Radioallergosorbant Test
99

list 3 procedures for appearance modification

  1. Dermabrasion
  2. laser resurfacing
  3. botox injections