____ is a condition in which cholesterol is deposited within the lamina propria of the gallbladder.
____ is associated with cholesterol stones in 50-70% of patients.
With ___ most patients do not show thickening of the gallbladder wall. Small percentage show polyps, which are small, soft tissue projections connected by a stalk to the gallbladder wall. They are usually found in the middle third of the gallbladder and are less than 10 mm in diameter.
____ is a hyperplastic change in the gallbladder wall.
___ may occur singly or in groups and may be scattered over a large part of the mucosal surface of the gallbladder. ___ are not precursors to cancer.
Various patient positions show the lesion to be immobile.
____ is the primary carcinoma of the gallbladder; is rare and nearly always a rapidly progressive disease with a mortality rate approaching 100%.
Associated with ____ in approx. 80-90%.
Twice as common as carcinoma of the bile ducts and occurs most frequently in women greater than 60.
___ can be congenital, focal, or diffuse cystic dilation of the biliary tree.
May be the result of pancreatic juices refluxing into thebile duct because of abnormal junction of the pancreatic duct and CBD causing duct wall abnormality, weakness and outpouching of the ductal walls.
____ are rare and are more common in women than men, with an increased incidence in infants.
May be associated with gallstones, pancreatitis, or cirrhosis
___ symptoms include: abdominal mass, pain, fever and jaundice.
Diagnosis may be confirmed with a nuclear medicine hepatobiliary scan.
___ are classified into 5 types.
Choledochal Cyst type __ is a fusiform dilations of the CBD.
Most common, along with type 4a.
Associated with a long common channel (greater than 20mm) between the distal bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
Choledochal cyst type __ are true diverticuli of the bile ducts.
Type _ (choledochoceles) are cinfined to the intraduodenoal portion of the CBD.
Choledochal cyst type __ are intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary dilations.
Type __ cysts are confined to the extrahepatic biliary tree.
Type __ have been classified as Caroli's Disease (beaded appearance).
___ is a rare congenital abnormality most likely inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.
___ is a communicating cavernous ectasia of the intrahepatic ducts characterized by congenital segmental saccular cystic dilation of major intrahepatic bile ducts.
___ is found in the young adult or pediatric population; may be associated with renal disease or congenital hepatic fibrosis.
Symptoms: recurrent cramplike upper abdominal pain, secondary to biliary stasis, ductal stones, cholangitis, and hepatic fibrosis.
Medullary sponge kidney has a strong association to ___.
2 types: Simple classic form and the more common form associated with periportal hepatic fibrosis.
___ presents as multiple cystic structures in the area of the ductal system converge toward the porta hepatis. Masses seen as localized or diffusely scattered cysts communicate with bile ducts. Ducts may show a beaded appearance as the extend into the periphery of the liver.
___ differential diagnosis includes polycystic liver disease.
Ectasia of the extrahepatic and common bile ducts may be present.
Dilated biliary ducts with a diameter of __ mm requires further investigation.
A patient may have a normal size hepatic duct and still have distal obstruction.
The CBD has a slightly greater internal diameter than the hepatic duct.
A duct of greater than __ mm is dilated.
Most common cause of ___ is the presence of a tumor or thrombus within the ductal system.
May be found in the extrahepatic or intrahepatic ductal pathway.
Sonographic finding of ___ is called "too many tubes" or "shotgun" sign when intrahepatic ducts are dilated.
intrahepatic, suprapancreatic, and porta hepatic
3 primary areas for extrahepatic biliary obstruction?
Pancreatic carcinoma, choledocholithiasis, and chronic pancreatitis with stricture formation
3 conditions that cause the the majority of biliary obstruction at the level of the distal duct and cause the extrahepatic duct to be entirely dilated?
___ originates between the pancreas and the porta hepatis. The head of the pancreas, the intrapancreatic duct, amd pancreatic duct are normal with ultrasound.
The most common cause for this obstruction is malignancy or adenonpthy at this level.
Porta Hepatic Obstruction
___ is usually the result of a neoplasm.
In patients with obstruction at this level, ultrasound will show intrahepatic ductal dilation and a normal common duct.
Hydrops of the gallbladder may be present.
___ is another cause of obstruction that is a rare malignancy that originates within the larger bile ducts (usually the common duct or common hepatic duct)
____ is the second most common primary malignancy of the liver. Incidence of this tumor has risen, secondary to increasing numbers of patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C infection.
These tumors are often unresectable with a poor prognosis.
____ sonographic findings include a large hepatic mass; hypoechoic to hyperechoic; and heterogeneous texture or hypovascular solid mass
Biliary ductal dilation is associated with these obstructive masses in 1/3 of cases.
___ begins in the right or left bile duct and then extends into the proximal duct and distally into the common hepatic duct and contralateral bile ducts.
Tumor may extend outside of the ducts to involve the adjacent portal vein and arteries. Chronic obstruction leads to atrophy of the involved lobe.
___ symptoms include jaundice, pruritus, and elevated cholestatic liver parameters.
Majority of patients die within 1 year of diagnosis.
___ is a specific type of cholangiocarcinoma that can occur at the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct, with involvement of both the central left and right ducts. A nonunion of the right and left ducts without an obstructing mass imaged is characteristic for a ___.
Sonographic: isolated intrahepatic duct dilation
___ is an uncommon cause for extrahepatic biliary obstruction because of an inpacted stone in the cystic duct, which creates extrinsic mechanical compression of the common hepatic duct.
Presents with painful jaundice. Sonographically dilation is seen with a normal sized common duct and a large stone in the neck or cystic duct.
Spokes of a wheel
Dilated ducts look similar to the ____.
Dilated ducts have ___.
___ is the formation of calcium stones in the bile duct.
These stones may result from sclerosing cholangitis, Caroli's disease, parasitic infections, chronic hemolytic diseases, and prior biliary surgery
___ denotes the majority of stones in the common bile duct have migrated from the gallbladder.
Common duct stones are usually associated with calculous cholecystitis.
___ is bleeding into the biliary tree.
___ main cause is biliary trauma secondary to biliary procedures or liver biopsies. Other causes include cholangitis, cholecystitism vascular malformations, abdominal trauma, and malignancies.
Symptoms: pain, bleeding and jaundice
___ sonographic appearance depends on the length of time the blood has been present. Acute hemorrhage will appear as fluid with low-level internal echoes. Blood clots may move in the duct with extension into the gallbaldder.
___ is air within the biliary tree secondary to biliary intervention, biliary-enteric anatomoses, or common bile duct stents.
May be caused by emphysematous cholecystitis, inflammation from an impacted stone in the CBD, and prolonged acute cholecystitis, which may lead to erosion of the bowel.
____ sonographically presents as bright, echogenic linear structures that follow the portal triads. The posterior dirty shadow and reverberation artifact is seen. Movement of air bubbles with change in position should be noted.
___ is an inflammation of the bile ducts. It may be identified as oriental sclerosing cholangitis. Other forms include AIDS cholangitis, and acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis.
__ symtoms: malaise and fever, followed by sweating and shivering, RUQ pain, and jaundice. In severe cases, patient is lethargic, prostrate and in shock.
Lab values show leukocytosis and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin.
___ is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbriocoides, which uses a fecal-oral route of transmission.
The worm may be 20-30 cm long and 6 cm in diameter.
___ worms grow in the small bowel before entering the biliary tree through the ampulla of vater then causes acute biliary obstruction.
The patient may be asymptomatic or have biliary colic, pancreatitism or biliary symptoms.
Metastases of the Biliary Tree
___ most common tumor sites that can spread to the biliary tree are from the breast colon and melanoma. Can affect the intrahepatic and extrahepatic ductal systems.
Sonographically: presents similar to cholangiocarcioma.