Abdominal Notes 1
When do the kidneys complete the journey from the pelvis to the abdomen?
What causes Junctional parenchymal defect?
It results from incomplete embryonic fusion of renunculi.
When is nephrogenesis complete?
Which ribs are located at the level of the kidneys?
L1 to L3
Name the layers surrounding the kidneys.
Which renal vein is the longest?
right renal vein
Where are horseshoe kidneys usually fused?
What is the cause of elevated serum creatinine?
large # of nephrons being destroyed
What is the most specific lab value to renal dysfunction?
What causes BUN to rise?
What causes BUN to fall?
decreased protein intake
How is the kidney volume calculated?
L x W x H x 0.52
Describe the renal arteries.
Describe the renal veins
What are the 3 constrictures of the ureters
What resistance are the renal arteries?
What is a life threatening pathology of gas forming bacteria within the kidneys?
What is Acute Tubular Necrosis?
reversible renal failure
reduction of tubular blood flow
What is pyonephritis?
pus in the kidneys
What is glomerulonephritis?
inflammation of the glomerulus associated with autoimmune.
What is candidiasis?
fungus associated with immuno compromised multiple abscesses
What is schistomiasis?
Will the kidneys be enlarged with acute or chronic renal failure?
Will the kidneys be small with acute or chronic renal failure?
What is the most common cortical mass of the kidneys?
What is the most common solid renal mass in infants?
What is the benign counterpart of Wilm's?
What is another name for fetal renal hamartoma?
What is the most common malignant mass in children?
When is WIlm's usually found?
newborns to 8 years
What is the most common tumor of the renal collecting system?
transitional cell carcinoma
How many liver segments with Couinaud liver anatomy?
What is the difference between couinaud and other anatomic divisions?
each segment has own portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct.
Where is the caudate lobe located on the liver?
What is between the IVC and the medial left lobe of the liver?
What happens when caudate lobe enlarges?
might compress the IVC
What causes caudate enlargement?
What does the right intersegmental fissure of the liver divide?
rt lobe into anterior and posterior segments
What does the left intersegmental fissure of the liver divide?
left lobe into medial and lateral segments
What does the ligament venosum divide in the liver?
caudate lobe and left lobe
What is chylous?
milky chyle into the peritoneal cavity
What is the appearance of chylous?
ascites with fine internal echoes
What does endemic mean?
What happens to prothrombin time with cirrhosis?
What is the keyboard sign?
valvulae conniventes. in jejunum and ileum
AKA plicae circulares. : the numerous permanent crescentic folds of mucous membrane found in the small intestine especially in the lower part of the duodenum and the jejunum
What is the most likely diagnosis of a slightly echogenic liver with prominent portal borders?
What is the measurement of a dilated IVC?
What is a thyroid storm?
Graves' disease is by far the most common cause of hyperthyroidism
What is the 1st lateral branch of the aorta?
what does the hepatic vein measure in a woman?
What is the measurement of the pancreatic duct?
Where does the hepatic artery lie to the portal vein?
anterior / medial
What is leukocytosis?
10,000 per mm
What nerve controls the pancreas?
How does the left kidney lie to the spleen?
inferior / medial
What is the appearance of the kidney in a patient with leukemia?
Describe the course of the hepatic duct?
caudel / medial
Describe the spleen with portal hypertension?
mild to moderate splenomegaly
Explain the appearance of a degenerating tumor of the liver?
Labwork of a post kidney transplant shows elevated creatinine. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What is the waterlily sign?
there is detachment of the endocyst membrane which results in floating membranes within the pericyst that mimic the appearance of a water lily.
What is the appearance of a porcelain gallbladder?
will mimic stone WES
or gas - emphysematous cholecystitis
What will happen to amylase when a mumps infection is present?
What is the hockey puck sign?
What is a Krukenberg tumor?
malignancy in the ovary that metastasized from a primary site
but also Breast