Abdominal Notes 1

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1

When do the kidneys complete the journey from the pelvis to the abdomen?

12-15 weeks

2

What causes Junctional parenchymal defect?

It results from incomplete embryonic fusion of renunculi.

3

When is nephrogenesis complete?

36 weeks

4

Which ribs are located at the level of the kidneys?

L1 to L3

5

Name the layers surrounding the kidneys.

capsule

perirenal fat

gerota's fascia

6

Which renal vein is the longest?

right renal vein

7

Where are horseshoe kidneys usually fused?

lower poles

8

What is the cause of elevated serum creatinine?

large # of nephrons being destroyed

9

What is the most specific lab value to renal dysfunction?

creatinine

10

What causes BUN to rise?

renal damage

renal failure

dehydration

urinary obstruction

GI bleeding

CHF

Shock

starvation

11

What causes BUN to fall?

overhydration

pregnancy

liver failure

decreased protein intake

smoking

12

How is the kidney volume calculated?

L x W x H x 0.52

13

Describe the renal arteries.

renal

segmental

interlobar

arcuate

interlobular

afferent

14

Describe the renal veins

efferent

interlobular

arcuate

interlobar

segmental

renal

15

What are the 3 constrictures of the ureters

ureteropelvic junction

pelvic rim

ureterovesicle junction

16

What resistance are the renal arteries?

low

17

What is a life threatening pathology of gas forming bacteria within the kidneys?

emphysematous pyelonephritis

18

What is Acute Tubular Necrosis?

reversible renal failure

reduction of tubular blood flow

19

What is pyonephritis?

pus in the kidneys

20

What is glomerulonephritis?

inflammation of the glomerulus associated with autoimmune.

21

What is candidiasis?

fungus associated with immuno compromised multiple abscesses

22

What is schistomiasis?

parasitic

23

Will the kidneys be enlarged with acute or chronic renal failure?

acute

24

Will the kidneys be small with acute or chronic renal failure?

chronic

25

What is the most common cortical mass of the kidneys?

adenoma

26

What is the most common solid renal mass in infants?

mesoblastic nephroma

27

What is the benign counterpart of Wilm's?

mesoblastic nephroma

28

What is another name for fetal renal hamartoma?

mesoblastic nephroma

29

What is the most common malignant mass in children?

WIlm's

30

When is WIlm's usually found?

newborns to 8 years

31

What is the most common tumor of the renal collecting system?

transitional cell carcinoma

32

How many liver segments with Couinaud liver anatomy?

8 segments

33

What is the difference between couinaud and other anatomic divisions?

each segment has own portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct.

34

Where is the caudate lobe located on the liver?

posterior superior

35

What is between the IVC and the medial left lobe of the liver?

caudate lobe

36

What happens when caudate lobe enlarges?

might compress the IVC

37

What causes caudate enlargement?

cirrosis

38

What does the right intersegmental fissure of the liver divide?

rt lobe into anterior and posterior segments

39

What does the left intersegmental fissure of the liver divide?

left lobe into medial and lateral segments

40

What does the ligament venosum divide in the liver?

caudate lobe and left lobe

41

What is chylous?

milky chyle into the peritoneal cavity

42

What is the appearance of chylous?

ascites with fine internal echoes

43

What does endemic mean?

regional

44

What happens to prothrombin time with cirrhosis?

increases

45

What is the keyboard sign?

valvulae conniventes. in jejunum and ileum

AKA plicae circulares. : the numerous permanent crescentic folds of mucous membrane found in the small intestine especially in the lower part of the duodenum and the jejunum

46

What is the most likely diagnosis of a slightly echogenic liver with prominent portal borders?

acute hepatitis

47

What is the measurement of a dilated IVC?

3.7

48

What is a thyroid storm?

thyrotoxicosis

Graves' disease is by far the most common cause of hyperthyroidism

49

What is the 1st lateral branch of the aorta?

inferior phrenic

50

what does the hepatic vein measure in a woman?

5.6 mm

51

What is the measurement of the pancreatic duct?

2 mm

52

Where does the hepatic artery lie to the portal vein?

anterior / medial

53

What is leukocytosis?

10,000 per mm

54

What nerve controls the pancreas?

vegus

55

How does the left kidney lie to the spleen?

inferior / medial

56

What is the appearance of the kidney in a patient with leukemia?

enlarged echogenic

57

Describe the course of the hepatic duct?

caudel / medial

58

Describe the spleen with portal hypertension?

mild to moderate splenomegaly

59

Explain the appearance of a degenerating tumor of the liver?

hypoechoic

60

Labwork of a post kidney transplant shows elevated creatinine. What is the most likely diagnosis?

rejection

61

What is the waterlily sign?

hydatid infections

there is detachment of the endocyst membrane which results in floating membranes within the pericyst that mimic the appearance of a water lily.

62

What is the appearance of a porcelain gallbladder?

will mimic stone WES

or gas - emphysematous cholecystitis

63

What will happen to amylase when a mumps infection is present?

elevated

64

What is the hockey puck sign?

...

65

What is a Krukenberg tumor?

malignancy in the ovary that metastasized from a primary site

mainly GI

but also Breast