state and local politics

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chapter 5 political parties
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Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA): 163

this act banned federal political parties from using soft money for federal election activity but also restricted some activities of state and local parties.


Caucus: pg. 148

used by parties to nominate candidates, with party members informally meeting, deliberating, and casting a vote for their preferred candidate.


Closed primary

primary nomination election in which voters registered with a political party are permitted to vote only for candidates of the party with whom they are registered.


Functional party model: pg. 146

theory that parties are pragmatic, self-interested organizations , striving to maximize votes in order to win elections and control political office.


Office-block ballot: 170

groups together all candidates running for a single political office by the political office rather than by their party.


Open primary: pg. 148

primary nomination election. any registered voter, including independents, can participate. voters must decide which party's primary they will participate in , and can choose only among that party's candidates.


Partisan dealignment: 159

the weakening of the attachment that voters have to a political party.


Partisan sorting:159

partisan identification process by which liberals increasingly identify as Democrats and conservatives increasingly identify as Republicans. .


Party boss

head of an urban or state party machine who controls elections and disbursement of patronage.


Party-column ballot: 170

groups together all candidates running for different political offices by their party affiliation, making straight-ticket voting possible.


Party fusion

permits two or more parties to nominate the same candidate for office, with the candidate's name appearing on the ballot alongside the name of each party by which he or she is cross-endorsed.


Party identification (PID): 156

it is the strength of an individuals attachment to a political party.



partisan candidates who run for elective office as well as officeholders at the local, state and national levels who are elected under the party label.


Patronage appointments: 161

the rewarding of government offices to loyal supporters in exchange for their political support.



primary election: election to decide which candidates will be able to be listed on the general election ( November) ballot.


Responsible party model: pg. 145

theory advanced by 18-th century Irish philosopher Edmund Burke that parties should be ideologically consistent, presenting voters with a clear platform and set of policies that are expected to be held responsible for implementing the party's program and policies.


Semi-closed primary: 148

voting in a party's primary is permitted for voters who are registered with the party or as independents.


Semi-open primary:148

registered voters may vote in any party's primary, but they must publicly declare for which party's primary they choose to vote.


Soft money: 163

campaign funds not regulated by federal election laws, originally intended to be used for party building and for state and local general electioneering activities.


Spoils system: 161

informal system in which political appointments are rewarded on the basis of political considerations , rather than fitness for office.


Top-two blanket primary : 149

allows eligible voters, irrespective of their party affiliation, to vote in a primary for any candidate running on any party ticket, with the top candidates from each political party squaring off in the general election.