Anatomy & Physiology: General Terminology, Histology, Mitosis & Meiosis, Membranes, Glands & Cartilage"
Body Planes are
imaginary lines used for reference; they include the:
1- Median plane
2- Coronal plane
A cut along the Median plane is a
* Cutting the body into left & right sections.
A cut along the coronal plane is a
*Slicing the body down the middle into two, giving you a front half (anterior) & a back half (posterior).
A cut through the transverse plane is a
*Slicing the body in half,giving you a top half (superior) & a bottom half (inferior).
The body is erect, the feet are slightly apart, the head is held high & the palms of the hands are facing forward.
Visual of Body planes untitled
* HINT, HINT test yourself w/this notecard*
Answer is on next notecard. :-)
Visual of the body planes titled
~IMPORTANT TERMS OF DIRECTION~
7. Proximal / Distal
1. Superior- ABOVE
2. Inferior- BELOW
3. Anterior- FACING FORWARD
4. Posterior- TOWARD THE BACK
5. Medial- TOWARD THE MIDLINE (middle of body)
6. Lateral-AWAY FROM MIDLINE (toward sides of body)
7. Proximal / Distal- PROXIMAL & DISTAL ARE TERMS OF DIRECTION USUALLY IN REFERENCE TO LIMBS. PROXIMAL MEANS CLOSER TO THE POINT OF ATTACHMENT. DISTAL MEANS FURTHER AWAY FROM POINT OF ATTACHMENT
Includes the cranial & spinal cavities
Includes the orbits & the nasal, oral, thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities.
Histology is the study of
A tissue is a
group of cells that act together to perform specific functions
The 4 fundamental tissues are
Epithelial, connective, muscle & nerve tissues.
cover, line & protect the body & its internal organs.
is the framework of the body, providing support & structure for the organs
is composed of neurons & connective tissue cells that are referred to as neuroglia
have the ability to contract (shorten). Muscle tissue is classified as VOLUNTARY MUSCLE (skeletal muscles) or INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE (smooth muscle & cardiac muscle tissue).
Smooth muscle & cardiac muscle
The cell is
the basic unit of life & the building block of tissues & organs.
The nucleus contains
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Ribosomes
DNA & Ribosomes are especially important for
the synthesis of proteins
the enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions within the body.
MITOSIS & MEIOSIS
MITOSIS & MEIOSIS
is necessary for growth & repair. * In this process the DNA is duplicated & distributed evenly to 2 daughter cells.
is special cell division that takes place in the gonads, that is, the ovaries & testes.
In the process of meiosis the chromosome number is REDUCED from
46 to 23, so when the egg & the sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.
MEMBRANES, GLANDS AND CARTILAGE
MEMBRANES, GLANDS AND CARTILAGE
The four Principal kinds of membranes are
Mucous, serous, synovial & cutaneous
Mucous membranes (mucosa) line the
insides of hollow organs that open to the outside. (Mouth, rectum, reproductive, urinary)
Serous membranes (or serosa)line body
cavities closed to the exterior (heart, lungs, etc);is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid. *They secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement.
_________ is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid.
Serous membranes (serosa)
Serous membranes secrete a _____a_____ which reduces _____b_______ from muscle movement.
a. lubricating fluid b. friction
Which membrane is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid?
are the connective tissue membrane that lines the cavity of a synovial joint and produces the synovial fluid; it lines all internal surfaces of the cavity except for the articular cartilage of the bones.
Synovial membranes line
all internal surfaces of the cavity except for the articular cartilage of bones.
What membrane lines all internal surfaces of the cavity EXCEPT for articular cartilage of bones?
is the skin-Integumentary system. We have the epidermis which is the outer epithelium tissue and dermis is the connective tissue.
Mucous, serous, synovial & cutaneous membranes are composed of
mainly epithelial tissue.
The three types of glands include
sudoriferous, sebaceous & ceruminous
are small tubular structures situated within and under the skin (in the subcutaneous tissue). They discharge sweat by tiny openings in the surface of the skin.
Which glands are small tubular structures situated within and under the skin?
Which glands are in the subcutaneous tissue?
Which glands discharge sweat by tiny openings in the surface of the skin?
Sebaceous glands are
a small gland in the skin (usually attached to hair follicles) which secretes a lubricating oily matter (sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair.
Which glands are known to usually be attached to hair folliclies?
Which gland secretes sebum?
What is the purpose of sebum?
lubricate the skin & hair
A specialized gland that secretes cerumen into the external auditory canal; it's one of a number of tiny structures in the external ear canal, believed to be modified sweat glands. They secrete a waxy cerumen instead of watery sweat.
Which gland is a specialized gland that secretes cerumen into the external auditory canal?
The __________ is one of the number of tiny structures in the external ear canal.
Which gland is believed to be a modified sweat gland, that secretes a waxy cerumen instead of a watery sweat?
Cartilage is replaced by
bone in the embryonic development
Cartilage is found mainly in
joints, the thorax & various rigid tubes.
Visual of Hyline cartilage (most abundant cartilage in our body).