Anatomy & Physiology: General Terminology, Histology, Mitosis & Meiosis, Membranes, Glands & Cartilage"

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created 8 years ago by jenkarmata
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Part I, A&P study info for the Hesi exam 2012
updated 8 years ago by jenkarmata
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College: Second year
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1

Body Planes are

imaginary lines used for reference; they include the:
1- Median plane
2- Coronal plane
3-Transverse plane

2

A cut along the Median plane is a

-Sagittal section-
* Cutting the body into left & right sections.

3

A cut along the coronal plane is a

-Frontal section-
*Slicing the body down the middle into two, giving you a front half (anterior) & a back half (posterior).

4

A cut through the transverse plane is a

-Cross section-
*Slicing the body in half,giving you a top half (superior) & a bottom half (inferior).

5

Anatomical Position

The body is erect, the feet are slightly apart, the head is held high & the palms of the hands are facing forward.

6

Visual of Body planes untitled
* HINT, HINT test yourself w/this notecard*
Answer is on next notecard. :-)

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7

Visual of the body planes titled

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8

~IMPORTANT TERMS OF DIRECTION~
1. Superior-
2. Inferior-
3. Anterior-
4. Posterior-
5. Medial-
6. Lateral-
7. Proximal / Distal

1. Superior- ABOVE
2. Inferior- BELOW
3. Anterior- FACING FORWARD
4. Posterior- TOWARD THE BACK
5. Medial- TOWARD THE MIDLINE (middle of body)
6. Lateral-AWAY FROM MIDLINE (toward sides of body)
7. Proximal / Distal- PROXIMAL & DISTAL ARE TERMS OF DIRECTION USUALLY IN REFERENCE TO LIMBS. PROXIMAL MEANS CLOSER TO THE POINT OF ATTACHMENT. DISTAL MEANS FURTHER AWAY FROM POINT OF ATTACHMENT

9

Dorsal cavity

Includes the cranial & spinal cavities

10

Ventral cavity

Includes the orbits & the nasal, oral, thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities.

11

HISTOLOGY SECTION

HISTOLOGY SECTION

12

Histology is the study of

tissues

13

A tissue is a

group of cells that act together to perform specific functions

14

The 4 fundamental tissues are

Epithelial, connective, muscle & nerve tissues.

15

Epithelial cells

cover, line & protect the body & its internal organs.

16

Connective tissue

is the framework of the body, providing support & structure for the organs

17

Nerve tissue

is composed of neurons & connective tissue cells that are referred to as neuroglia

18

Muscle tissues

have the ability to contract (shorten). Muscle tissue is classified as VOLUNTARY MUSCLE (skeletal muscles) or INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE (smooth muscle & cardiac muscle tissue).

19

Voluntary muscle

Skeletal muscle

20

Involuntary muscle

Smooth muscle & cardiac muscle

21

The cell is

the basic unit of life & the building block of tissues & organs.

22

The nucleus contains

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Ribosomes

23

DNA & Ribosomes are especially important for

the synthesis of proteins

24

Proteins include

the enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions within the body.

25

MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

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MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

26

Mitosis

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is necessary for growth & repair. * In this process the DNA is duplicated & distributed evenly to 2 daughter cells.

27

Meiosis

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is special cell division that takes place in the gonads, that is, the ovaries & testes.

28

In the process of meiosis the chromosome number is REDUCED from

46 to 23, so when the egg & the sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.

29

MEMBRANES, GLANDS AND CARTILAGE

MEMBRANES, GLANDS AND CARTILAGE

30

The four Principal kinds of membranes are

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Mucous, serous, synovial & cutaneous

31

Mucous membranes (mucosa) line the

insides of hol­low organs that open to the out­side. (Mouth, rec­tum, repro­duc­tive, urinary)

32

Serous membranes (or serosa)line body

cavities closed to the exterior (heart, lungs, etc);is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid. *They secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement.

33

_________ is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid.

Serous membranes (serosa)

34

Serous membranes secrete a _____a_____ which reduces _____b_______ from muscle movement.

a. lubricating fluid b. friction

35

Which membrane is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid?

Serous membranes

36

Synovial membranes

are the connective tissue membrane that lines the cavity of a synovial joint and produces the synovial fluid; it lines all internal surfaces of the cavity except for the articular cartilage of the bones.

37

Synovial membranes line

all internal surfaces of the cavity except for the articular cartilage of bones.

38

What membrane lines all internal surfaces of the cavity EXCEPT for articular cartilage of bones?

Synovial membranes

39

Cutaneous membrane

is the skin-Integu­men­tary sys­tem. We have the epi­der­mis which is the outer epithe­lium tis­sue and der­mis is the con­nec­tive tissue.

40

Mucous, serous, synovial & cutaneous membranes are composed of

mainly epithelial tissue.

41

The three types of glands include

sudoriferous, sebaceous & ceruminous

42

Sudoriferous glands

are small tubular structures situated within and under the skin (in the subcutaneous tissue). They discharge sweat by tiny openings in the surface of the skin.

43

Which glands are small tubular structures situated within and under the skin?

Sudoriferous glands

44

Which glands are in the subcutaneous tissue?

Sudoriferous glands

45

Which glands discharge sweat by tiny openings in the surface of the skin?

Sudoriferous glands

46

Sebaceous glands are

a small gland in the skin (usually attached to hair follicles) which secretes a lubricating oily matter (sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair.

47

Which glands are known to usually be attached to hair folliclies?

Sebaceous glands

48

Which gland secretes sebum?

Sebaceous glands

49

What is the purpose of sebum?

lubricate the skin & hair

50

Ceruminous glands

A specialized gland that secretes cerumen into the external auditory canal; it's one of a number of tiny structures in the external ear canal, believed to be modified sweat glands. They secrete a waxy cerumen instead of watery sweat.

51

Which gland is a specialized gland that secretes cerumen into the external auditory canal?

Ceruminous glands

52

The __________ is one of the number of tiny structures in the external ear canal.

Ceruminous gland

53

Which gland is believed to be a modified sweat gland, that secretes a waxy cerumen instead of a watery sweat?

Ceruminous gland

54

Cartilage is replaced by

bone in the embryonic development

55

Cartilage is found mainly in

joints, the thorax & various rigid tubes.

56

Visual of Hyline cartilage (most abundant cartilage in our body).

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