Chapter 1 - Lecture Exam 1

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Humans and the Microbial World
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What is the difference between Microbe and Micro-organism?

Microbe - are non-living, pathogenic, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and virus and prions

Micro-organism - are living and complex, decomposers, including bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists


Explain why endospores confused the studies on spontaneous generation.

Endospores are heat-resistant forms of bacteria, that survive the sterilization process such as boiling.


Who is the creator Microbiology?

Who was the first person to observe a microorganism?

-Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1674) - observed pond water through simple microscope

- Robert Hooke (observed microfungus)


Define: Spontaneous generation

The creation of living organisms from non-living material


Describe the key experiments that disproved spontaneous generation. Name the scientists that carried them out.

-Francesco Redi showed that spontaneous generation was not true with his worms on rotting meat experiment, but not widely accepted

-Louis Pasteur (father of modern microbio) with the Swan-Necked Flasks refuted the theory with strongest argument.


Name the three Domains of all living organisms:

Bacteria -

Archaea -

Eucarya -


List the properties of the Domain Bacteria.

-They are single-celled prokaryotes and common in human infection

-Most of specific shapes (rod, round, spiral)

-Most have rigid cell walls (containing peptidoglycan not found in organisms of other domains)

-Multiply by binary fission

-Move using flagella


List the properties of the Domain Archaea.

-Same attributes as Bacteria

-Do not have peptidoglycan in cell walls

-Ability to grow in extreme environments other organisms cannot survive


List the properties of the Domain Eucarya.

-All members of the living world, eukaryotes, besides prokaryotes.

-Single or multicellular (i.e. Algae, fungi, protozoa, and multi-cellular parasites)


Define and list the characteristics of Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes - "prenucleus"; all Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes

- Single-celled organisms

- No membrane bound organelles

- Cytoplasm surrounded by rigid cell wall


Define and list the characteristics of Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes - "true nucleus"

-single or multi-cellular

-always contain a true membrane-bound nucleus and organelles


What is nomenclature? First word in name is called? Second word in name is called?

-Bionomial naming system (i.e. E. coli)

-First word is genus name, always captialized (i.e. Escherichia)

-Second word is species name, no caps (i.e. coli)


Define and list the characteristics of Viruses


-protein coat surrounding nucleic acid

-all forms of life can be infected by viruses


Define and list the characteristics of Viroids

-viroids are simpler and smaller than viruses

-single short piece of RNA

-no protective coat

-generally infect plants only


Define and list the characteristics of Prions

-infectious proteins

-proteins can become prions

- cause neurodegenerative diseases