Chapter 1 - Lecture Exam 1
What is the difference between Microbe and Micro-organism?
Microbe - are non-living, pathogenic, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and virus and prions
Micro-organism - are living and complex, decomposers, including bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists
Explain why endospores confused the studies on spontaneous generation.
Endospores are heat-resistant forms of bacteria, that survive the sterilization process such as boiling.
Who is the creator Microbiology?
Who was the first person to observe a microorganism?
-Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1674) - observed pond water through simple microscope
- Robert Hooke (observed microfungus)
Define: Spontaneous generation
The creation of living organisms from non-living material
Describe the key experiments that disproved spontaneous generation. Name the scientists that carried them out.
-Francesco Redi showed that spontaneous generation was not true with his worms on rotting meat experiment, but not widely accepted
-Louis Pasteur (father of modern microbio) with the Swan-Necked Flasks refuted the theory with strongest argument.
Name the three Domains of all living organisms:
List the properties of the Domain Bacteria.
-They are single-celled prokaryotes and common in human infection
-Most of specific shapes (rod, round, spiral)
-Most have rigid cell walls (containing peptidoglycan not found in organisms of other domains)
-Multiply by binary fission
-Move using flagella
List the properties of the Domain Archaea.
-Same attributes as Bacteria
-Do not have peptidoglycan in cell walls
-Ability to grow in extreme environments other organisms cannot survive
List the properties of the Domain Eucarya.
-All members of the living world, eukaryotes, besides prokaryotes.
-Single or multicellular (i.e. Algae, fungi, protozoa, and multi-cellular parasites)
Define and list the characteristics of Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes - "prenucleus"; all Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes
- Single-celled organisms
- No membrane bound organelles
- Cytoplasm surrounded by rigid cell wall
Define and list the characteristics of Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes - "true nucleus"
-single or multi-cellular
-always contain a true membrane-bound nucleus and organelles
What is nomenclature? First word in name is called? Second word in name is called?
-Bionomial naming system (i.e. E. coli)
-First word is genus name, always captialized (i.e. Escherichia)
-Second word is species name, no caps (i.e. coli)
Define and list the characteristics of Viruses
-protein coat surrounding nucleic acid
-all forms of life can be infected by viruses
Define and list the characteristics of Viroids
-viroids are simpler and smaller than viruses
-single short piece of RNA
-no protective coat
-generally infect plants only
Define and list the characteristics of Prions
-proteins can become prions
- cause neurodegenerative diseases