Funds Ch 47
What is body mechanics?
A term used to describe the coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous system.
Alignment and Balance (also refers to..?)
Body Alignment means...?
Also refers to posture; positioning of joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles while standing, sitting, and lying.
It means a person's center of gravity is stable.
A force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement.
What is shear?
Name an example.
The force exerted against the skin while the skin remains stationary and the bony structures move.
Example: When the head of the bed is elevated beyond 60 degrees and gravity pulls the bony skeleton toward the foot of the bed while the skin remains against the sheets.
The freedom to move about freely.
The inability to move about freely.
An intervention that restricts clients for therapeutic reasons.
Postural Abnormalities affects
Affect the efficiency of the musculoskeletal system and body alignment, balance, and appearance.
Assess body alignment, range of motion
cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers. Patients may experience weakness, wasting of muscle groups, with increasing disability and deformity.
Damage to CNS
Damage to any component of the central nervous system that regulates voluntary movement results in impaired body alignment, balance, and mobility.
Trauma to Musculoskeletal system
results in bruises, contusions, sprains, and fractures
Alter endocrine metabolism, calcium resorption, and functioning of the GI system.
The most common respiratory complication: collapse of alveoli
Inflammation of the lung from stasis or pooling of secretions
Orthostatic Hypotension, increased cardiac workload, and thrombus formation
An increase in heart rate of more than 15% and a drop of 15 mm Hg or more in systolic blood pressure or a drop of 10 mm Hg or more in diastolic blood pressure when the patient changes from supine to standing position.
In the immobilized patient decreased circulating fluid volume, pooling of blood in the lower extremities, and decreased autonomic response occur
As the workload increases so does its oxygen consumption.
accumulation of platelets , fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery which sometimes occludes the lumen of the vessel.
Effects include: permanent or temporary impairment or damage, sometimes causes loss of endurance, strength, and muscle mass and decreased stability and balance. Impaired calcium metabolism and joint mobility.
Patient loses lean body mass, muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, puts patients at risk for falls
Impaired calcium metabolism and joint abnormalities: disuse osteoporosis occurs
abnormal and possibly permanent condition characterized by fixation of the joint, joint cannot achieve full range of motion.
Ex: Footdrop: the foot is permanantly fixed in a plantar flexion, ambulation is difficult with the foot in this position because patient cannot dorsiflex the foot: Patients who have suffered CVA's or brain attacks with resulting right or left sides paralysis (hemiplegia) are at risk for footdrop
When patient is immobile, kidneys and ureters move toward a more level plane.
Dehydration increases, in woman chance of urinary contamination by the bacteria Escherichia Coli bacteria.
The renal pelvis fills before urine enters the ureters--> increases the risk for UTI and renal calculi (calcium stones that lodge in the renal pelvis or pass through the ureters)
Harmful effect of pressure on the skin in immobilized patient, major risk factor for pressure ulcer.
An impairment of the skin as a result of prolonged ischemia (decreased blood flow) in tissues.
Characterized initially by inflammation and usually forms over bony prominence. Ischemia develops when the pressure on the skin is greater than the pressure inside the small peripheral blood vessels supplying blood to the skin.