Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology

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Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology
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1

Accommodation

Adjustment of the eye that allows a person to see various sizes of objects at diff. distances

2

amblyopia

reduction or dimness of vision w/no apparent organic cause; often referred to as lazy eye syndrome

3

gonioscopy

procedure in which a mirrored optical instrument is used to visualize the filtration angle of the anterior chamber of the eye; the procedure is used to diagnose glaucoma.

4

Hertz

Unit of measurement used in hearing examinations; a wave frequency equal to 1 cycle per second.

5

miotic

Any substance or medication that causes constriction of the pupil

6

mydriatic

TOPICAL ophthalmic medication that dilates the pupil; it is used in diagnostic procedures of the eye & as treatment for glaucoma.

7

fovea centralis

A small pit in the center of the retina that is the center of clearest vision.

8

Sclera

"external protection" The outermost layer of the eyeball which is made of a tough fibrous lining that protects the entire eyeball within the orbit.

9

iris

"Light absorption and regulation of pupil width" The colored portion of the eye.

10

eyelid

"protects eye" Helps protect the eye from trauma.

11

vitreous humor

Maintains the shape of the posterior eyeball.

12

conjunctiva

Thin mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers most of the outside of the eyeball.

13

rods

"Distinguish light from dark and perceive shape and movement" Structures in the retina that form the light-sensitive elements.

14

orbit

The bony cavity that protects and supports the eye.

15

cornea

"Light Refraction" The clear window that allows light to enter the eye.





16

eyebrow

Helps keep irritants out of the eyes.

17

choroid

"blood supply" The posterior portion of the middle layer of the eye that contains many blood vessels that supply nutrients to the outer layers of the retina.

18

lacrimal gland

"Produce tears" Located in the superior out portion of the upper eyelid and secretes tears.

19

cones

"Color vision" Structures in the retina that make the perception of color possible.

20

ciliary muscle

Regulates the shape of the lens.



21

eyelashes

Lines the margins of the eyelids and help trap foreign particles.

22

nasolacrimal duct

Passageway for tears to drain from the eye into the nasal cavity.

23

lens

"light refraction" A transparent biconvex body that helps focus light after it passes through the cornea

24

retina

Composed of neurons that convert light into neurological impulses.

25

Optic Nerve

One of a pair of nerves that transmit visual stimuli to (crainial nerve II) the brain





26

Optic Disk

region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina; it is considered the blind spot of the eye,

27

PERRLA

Pupil, equal, round, reactive to light, accommodation

28

Otosclerosis

  • the formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth of the ear.
  • causes the auditory ossicles to become fixed & unable to vibrate when sound enters the ear
29

ototoxic

Medicine or substance capable of damaging the 8th cranial nerve or the organs of hearing & balance

30

Psoriasis

a usually chronic, recurrent skin disease marked by red patches covered w/silvery scales

31

Seborrhea

an excessive discharge of sebum from the sebaceous glands, forming greasy scales or cheesy plugs on the body

32

tonometer

an instrument used to measure intraocular pressure

33

Ophthalmologist

  • a licensed medical physician who can diagnose eye disorders, prescribe meds, conduct screenings, prescribed glasses or contact lenses, & perform optic surgery.
  • You go to this person if you have a eye injury.
34

Opticians

trained to fill prescriptions written for corrective lenses by grinding the lenses & dispensing eyewear

35

Optometrist

can conduct eye examinations, diagnose vision problems & eye disease, & treat visual defects through corrective lenses & eye exercises.

36

Eye Disorders

  1. Strabismus
  2. Nystagmus
  3. Infection of the Eye
  4. Corneal abrasion
  5. Cataracts
  6. Glaucoma
  7. Macular Degeneration
37

Strabismus

failure o the eyes to track together, which means that both eyes do not look in the same direction at the same time.

38

Nystagmus

A constant involuntary movement of one or both eyes

39

Infections of the Eye

  1. Hordeola
  2. Chalazion
  3. Keratitis
  4. Conjunctivitis
  5. Blepharitis
40

Hordeola

a purulent infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid

41

Chalazion

a small cyst that results from a blockage of a bio

42
  1. Keratitis

inflammation of the cornea that results in superficial ulcerations

43

Conjunctivitis

inflammation conjunctiva caused by irritation, allergy , bacterial infection. (pinkeye)

44

Blepharitis

inflammation of the glands & lash follicles along the margins of the eyelids that may be caused by staphoccolis infections, allergies, or irritation

45

DISORDERS OF THE EYEBALL

  1. Corneal abrasion
  2. cataract
  3. glaucoma
  4. Macular Degeneration
46

Corneal abrasion

the transparent out covering of the eye, is prone to abrasions

  • Inflammation, tearing, photophobia.
  • caused by a forgein body in the eue or a direct trauma
47

cataract

a cloudy opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye that blocks the passage of light into the retina, causing impaired vision.

48

glaucoma

increased intraocular pressure

49

Macular Degeneration

a progressive deterioration of the macula lutea. loss of central vision

50

What is the eye test

Snellen Chart

51

Snellen chart

  • Various letter in the alphabet
  • directional symbols
  • Read 20 ft away
  • Start with the Right Eye
52

Visual Aquity

visual sharpness at 30 feet 10/30

53

Charting Snellen test

  • Right Eye
  • Left Eye
  • Both Eyes
  • Deficiencies
  • Reading #/#
  • OD
  • OS
  • OU
  • - # that you missed on that line
  • # of feet away/# line you read
54

Anatomy of the ear

  • Outer or External Ear
  • Middle Ear
  • Inner Ear
55

Outer or External Ear

consist of

  • auricle or pinna
  • fleshy part of the ear
  • external auditory canal (tube from auricle-tympanic membrane(eardrum))
  • merring jutis- ustatia tube
56

Middle ear

tympanic cavity - 3 bones helps sound vibrate so you can hear.

57

Inner ear

labyrinth divided into

  • cochlea
  • semicircular canals
  • maintains equilibrium
  • corti-receptor sounds, sound impulses
  • 8th canal- transmits impulses to the medulla oblongata
58

Hearing Loss Disorders

  • Otitis
  • Impacted cerumen
  • Meniers Disease
59

Otitis

  • swimmers ear
  • seborrhea or psoriasis: trauma to the ear canal or continues use of earplugs or earphones
  • inflammation of the mid ear from fluid behind the tympanic membrane
60

Impacted Cerumen

  • wax in the ear canal
  • Debrox drops are used to help sofen the wax
61

Meniers Disease

  • condition with the 8th canal nerve
  • control balance
  • swelling and edema in endolymphatic sac
  • patients experience nausea vomiting, & problems with balance
62

Hearing Loss due to

  • conductive impairment
  • sensorineural impairments
63

Conductive Impairment

caused by a problem that originates in the external or mid ear & prevents sound b=vibrations from passing through the external auditory canal, limiting tympanic membranes vibrations or interfering with the passage of bone-conducted sound in the mid ear.

64

Sensorineural impairments

damage to the organ of corti or the auditory nerve & prevents vibrations from being converted into the nervous stimuli

65

Diagnostic Procedures

  • Tuning Fork
  • Sensorineural hearing
66

Tuning Fork

detects conductive or Sensorineural hearing defects

67

Ear Irrigation

performed to remove excessive or impacted cerumen, to remove a foreignbody, or to treat the inflamed ear with an antiseptic solution.

68

Ear Irrigation Med Install

installed into the ear to soften impacted cerumen, relieve pain, or to treat infectious pathogens

69

Summerize the nose & throat examination

an inspection of the nasal cavity, this is followed by visual examination of the throat & the nasopharynx. Throat cultures may be done to determine whether a streptococcal infection is present. The anterior & posterior neck regions are palpated for abnormalities