abnormal psychology test 1

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1

abnormal behavior

behavior and thinking that are atypical and evaluated negatively because these deviate from the expected social norm

2

psychopathology

scientific study of psychological disorders

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the three d's

distress-symptoms or experiences that are troubling, confusing, or out of the ordinary

dysfunction-inability to function as expected in social and occupational activities

deviant-behavior that deviate from social standards or norms

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diagnosis

process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder

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supernatural tradition

-Deviant or abnormal behavior: Battle of "Good" vs. evil

-cause- witch craft, sorcery, violating taboo

-treatment: exorcism, torture, beatings, psychosurgieries-cutting holes in the skull- trephination

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middle ages

Mental illness cause: Satanic Forces

-often treatment consisted of: incantations, prayer, holy water, exorcism..inquisition, torture

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psychological theory

normal and abnormal psychological development occurs in an interpersonal and social context

-improve interpersonal and social context and psychological disorders will improve

-name od the reform movement:moral therapy

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moral therapy

treatment-humane treatment of institutionalized patients, encourage and reinforce social interaction

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philippe pinel

reforms mental treatment at the French bicetre asylum-humane, but firm. patients removed from chains

-trained physician

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Benjamin rish

-founder of American psychiatry

-limited his practice to mental illness and developed innovative, humane approaches to treatment

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Samuel tuke

-creates a quaker asyum in England for what historians refer to as moral therapy

-developed interest in mental health when a fellow quaker died in an asylum

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dorothea dix

-brings tukes ideas to america

-personal investigation of MH treatment in USA

-established generation MH facilities

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humoral theory

imbalance of 4 fuids that matched 4 personality imbalace

1.blood=sanguine

2.yelow bile=choleric

3.black bile=melancholic

(stable/unstable,introverted/extroverted

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psychoanalytic theory

is a method of investigating and treating personality disorders and is used in psychotherapy. included in this theory is the idea that things that happen to people during childhood can contribute to the way they later function as adults

15

humanistic theory

the study of the whole person-look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving

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prevalence

indicates how widespread the disease is

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incidence

conveys information about the risk of contradicting the disease

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acute onset

happens suddenly

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insidious onset

happens gradually

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chronic course

more than 1 week

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episodic course

happening or appearing at different times

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prognosis

the likely course of a disease or ailment

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etiology

the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition

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nomenclature

the devising or choosing names for things, especially in a science or other discipline

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deinstitutionalization

the process of transferring patients with mental disorders or developmental disabilities from long-tern institutions, which isolate the patient, to more integrated community-based mental health services

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clinical assessment

evaluation and measurement of psychological biological, and social factors that contribute to the diagnosis of psychological disorder

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clinical interview

-personal and social history

-clinical history

-mental status exam

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clinical history

purpose:discription and/or treatment for treatment and evaulation

description: history of presenting problem, precipitating factors (causes) and impacts on functioning

-detailed description of clients main problem

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mental status exam

Purpose:detect presence of clients cognitive, emotional, or behavioral problems

description: behavioral observation and verbal responses to assess problems of client

bottom line:impression patient makes the psychologist

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psychological test

measurement technique that quantifies behaviors, characteristics, attitudes or interests

-items or stimuli designed to measure human behavior or characteristics

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standardized test

uniform procedures for giving and scoring test

scores are "normed"-they can be compared to people of same age and gender

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objective test

self-reports

questions abut yourself

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psychosocial history

factors that affect how you feel, whether you get sick, how quickly you recover, response to stress and other conditions

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dsm

diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders that mental health professionals use

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American psychiatric association

published the DSM-main professional organization-largest in the world

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multidimensional model

biological influences

genes,nervous system,brain structure, neuron and neurotransmitters, emotional/cognitive influences, social influences, behavioral influences

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hinbrain

located in the back

coordinates bodily movements, controls posture, maintains balance

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midbrain

located in the middle

-hippocampus-short and long term memories,hypothalumus-fear, hunger, thirst, and sex-, amygdala-emotions,thalamus-sensory

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forebrain

2 hemispheres-positive and negative emotions, language processing

corpus collosum

4 lobs

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neuron

specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord

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soma

the parts of an organism other than the reproductive cell

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dendrite

branches of the nerve cell

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synaptic cleft

exist between two nerons

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receptors

respond to light, heat and other external stimulus and transmit a signal to the sensory nerve

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neurotransmitter

a chemical substance that is release at the end of a nerve fiver by the arrival of anerve impulse

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reuptake

he absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that has secreted

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diathesis stress model

psychological theory that attempts to explain behavior as a predisposition vulnerability together with stress and life experiences

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heritability

the proportion of this total variation between individuals in a given population due to genetic variation

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chromosomes

a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes

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genes

a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring

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DNA

it is the carrier of genetic information

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behavioral genetic studies

variation among individuals is separated into genetic versus environmental components