Microbiology Chapter 22

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1

What are some of the general defenses (against microorganisms) that are present in the upper and lower respiratory system?

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2

Which part of the respiratory system has normal biota and which doesn’t?

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3

Describe what pneumonia is. What distinguishes Klebsiella pneumoniae from other types?

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4

Group A streptococcus overcome the immune system in a number of ways. Explain the function of each of the following.

M proteins

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5

Group A streptococcus overcome the immune system in a number of ways. Explain the function of each of the following.

hyaluronic acid capsule

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6

Group A streptococcus overcome the immune system in a number of ways. Explain the function of each of the following.

Streptokinases

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7

Group A streptococcus overcome the immune system in a number of ways. Explain the function of each of the following.

C5a peptidase

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8

Group A streptococcus overcome the immune system in a number of ways. Explain the function of each of the following.

streptolysins

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9

Diphtheria toxin kills cells by interfering with which major cell process?

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10

Why is diphtheria not a major problem in the United States?

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11

Why must people receive a booster for the diphtheria vaccination every 10 years? What is another disease for which one must receive a booster shot?

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12

What is the organism that causes tuberculosis? Which cells do they use to propagate themselves within the host? What makes the phagocytic cells in the body unable to digest the organism?

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13

What does a TB test indicate? Be precise.

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14

In what form is anthracis contagious? How does it affect its victims?

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15

What type (viral genome) of virus causes influenza?

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16

Distinguish between antigenic drift and antigenic shift in influenza virus.

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17

The recently emerging H5N1 virus is considered to be a major virus to be prepared for (pandemic potential). In which organism did the virus originate? It has reached stage 1 mutation. What does that mean? What is the stage 2 mutation considered to be a major threat to humans? Why is it so difficult to develop a vaccine? Why might a vaccine not even be useful at the time of an outbreak?

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18

What is the difference between a cold and the flu (include the agent, and typical signs and symptoms of each)?

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19

What is the reservoir for Hantavirus? How is it spread to humans?
What tissues are destroyed? How does it kill the patient?

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20

Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is commonly found in which area of California? What is the causative agent (general category)?

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21

Why is immunity to the common cold so hard to develop, either naturally or through vaccines?

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