Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: Cells, Fibers, Glands & Misc Flashcards


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1

Fibroblasts

a cell in connective tissue that produces collagen and other fibers

2

Adipocytes

also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat

3

Reticulocytes

an immature red blood cell without a nucleus, having a granular or reticulated appearance when suitably stained

4

Chondrocytes

a cell that has secreted the matrix of cartilage and become embedded in it

5

Osteocytes

a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted

6

Erythrocytes (RBC)

the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system

7

Leucocytes (WBC)

a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease; a white (blood) cell. There are several types, all amoeboid cells with a nucleus, including lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages

8

Neurons

highly specialized to receive stimuli (excitability) and to generate electrical signals that may be sent to all parts of the body (conductivity)

9

Neuroglia

special supporting cells that protect, support, and insulate teh more delicate neurons

10

Goblet Cells

a column-shaped cell found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, which secretes the main component of mucus

11

Collagen Fiber

(white fibers) a type of protein fiber found abundantly throughout our body. It provides strength and cushioning to many different areas of the body, including the skin. More specifically, it is found in our various types of connective tissue such as cartilage, tendons, bones, and ligaments.

12

Elastic Fiber

(or yellow fibers) are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries

13

Reticular Fiber

(fine collagen) a type of fiber in connective tissue composed of type III collagen secreted by cells.These fibers crosslink to form a fine meshwork. This network acts as a supporting mesh in soft tissues such as liver, bone marrow, and the tissues and organs of the lymphatic system

14

Fibrinogen

a glycoprotein in vertebrates that helps in the formation of blood clots

15

Endocrine Gland

lose their surface connection (duct) as they develop; thus they are referred to as ductless glands. They secrete hormones into the extracellular fluid, and from there the hormones enter the blood or the lymphatic vessels that weave through the glands.

16

Exocrine Gland

retain their ducts, and their secretions empty through these ducts either to the body surface or into body cavities. Glands include the sweat and oil glands, liver, and pancreas.

17

Tubular Gland

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glands that retain their shape throughout their length.

Types:

  • Simple - found in large intestine and uterine glands
  • Coiled - found in sweat glands
  • Simple Branched - found in pyloric glands of stomach
18

Acinar

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have a saclike secretory portion. They typically have an enlarged lumen (cavity).

Types:

  • Simple/ Branched - found in thyroid glands
19

Tubulo-acinar

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glands that start out as simple branched tubular, and branch further to terminate in alveoli. Found in salivary glands, esophagus, and mammary glands.

20

Holocrine

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secretions are produced in the cytoplasm of the cell and released by the rupture of the plasma membrane, which destroys the cell and results in the secretion of the product into the lumen.

21

Apocrine

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Cells bud their secretions off through the plasma membrane producing membrane-bound vesicles in the lumen. The apical portion of the secretory cell of the gland pinches off and enters the lumen. (sebaceous glands)

22

Merocrine

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the secretions of the cell are excreted via exocytosis from secretory cells into an epithelial-walled duct or ducts and thence onto a bodily surface or into the lumen. (most sweat glands)

23

Ground Substance

In connective tissue, it is an amorphous gel-like substance surrounding the cells. Composed chiefly of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans.

24

Intercalated Discs

junctions where branching uninucleate cardiac cells fit together.

25

Striations

a series of ridges, furrows or linear marks

26

Dendrites

a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.

27

Axon

is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body.

28

Lamellae

a thin plate, scale, membrane, or layer, as of bone, tissue, or cell walls.

29

Canaliculi

microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone. The radiating processes of the osteocytes project into these canals. These cytoplasmic processes are joined together by gap junctions.

30

Central canal

the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord.

31

Lacuna

a small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.

32

Basement Membrane

a thin, delicate membrane of protein fibers and glycosaminoglycans separating an epithelium from underlying tissue.

33

Apical Surface

surface of epithelial cell that is exposed to the body exterior or to the cavity of an internal organ

34

Basal Surface

surface of epithelial tissue in contact with the structure that the epithelial tissue is covering or lining

35

Microvilli

projections from the plasma membrane to help increase surface area in epithelial tissue

36

Extracellular Matrix

a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.