Pharmacology Test 1 Ch. 1-5
A chemical that alters an organisms function or processes.
Ex. Caffeine, sugar.
The study of drugs, their origins, properties and interactions.
Define Chemical Name.
Name that is based on the drugs chemical structure.
Define Code name.
Name that is assigned by the manufacturer to an experimental chemical that shows promise.
Define Generic name.
Name that is assigned by the US adopted Name council when a manufacturer wished to market a drug. It is loosely based on the chemical structure and also known as the non-proprietary name.
Define Official Name.
Name that is entered into the USP-NF when fully approved. Generic name then becomes its official name.
Define Brand Name.
It is the proprietary name and what is patented out in the market.
What is the cost of creating a new drug and how many years does it take to develop?
The cost of creating a new drug is $5 billion. It takes 10-15 years.
What are the steps to the development of a drug?
1. Isolate the Chemical. This is generally tested on animals to see the general effects it has on specific organs and its toxicology.
2.Investigate new drug application on file with the FDA. This involves 3 phases.
- Phase 1: Test drug on a small group of healthy subjects.
- Phase 2: Test drug on a small group of subjects with the disease
- Phase 3: Test drug on a large multi-centered studies
3. New drug application. Reporting system for the first 6 months.
What are 5 reasons why a drug is given via an aerosol?
1. Smaller dose
2. Fewer side effects
3. Rapid onset of action
4. Targeted delivery
Describe Adrenergic agents.
They cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and cause bronchodialation to reduce airway resistance and to improve ventilatory flow rates in airway obstruction resulting from COPD, Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis and acute bronchitis.
Examples include : Albuterol*, Arformoterol, Formoterol, Indacaterol, Levalbuterol, Olodaterol, Salmeterol, Vilanterol, Racemic epinephrine*
Describe Anticholinergic agents.
They relax cholinergically induced bronchoconstriction to improve ventilatory flow rates in COPD + Asthma patients.
Describe Mucoactive agents.
They reduce viscosity and promote clearance of secretions.
Examples: Acetylcysteine, Dornase alfa.
Reduce and control airway inflammation response usually associated with asthma (lower respiratory tract) or with seasonal or chronic rhinitis (upper resp. tract.)
Examples: Beclomethasone, diproplonate, budesonide, ciclesonide, flunisode, fluticasone, furoate, mometasone furoate.
Describe Antiasthmatic agents.
They prevent onset and development of the asthmatic response through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.
example: cromolyn sodium, Montelukast, omalizumab, zarfirlukast, zieuton
Describe Antiinfective agents.
inhibition or elimination of specific infective agents such as pentamidine, ribavirin, pseudomona aeruginose in CF or influenza A and B
Describe Exogenous Surfactants
Approved clinical use if by direct intratracheal instillation for the purpose of restoring more normal lung compliance in RDS of newborns.
ex. beractant, calfactant, lucinactant, poractant,
What are 3 different drug formulations?
Tablet, Gas, IV
(Liquid, patch, topical, powder.)
Name five different routes of administration.
1.Enteral - Tablets, capsules
2. Parenteral - IV, injected
3. Transdermal - across the skin
4. inhalation - Aerosol Gas
5. Topical - On the skin
What is the pharmacokinetic phase?
(What the body does to the drug.)
It is the absorption and distribution phase. A drug taken orally would dissolve, be absorbed by the stomach lining, absorbed by the stomach endothelial lining, go through the lipid membranes of gastric and vascular cells,pass through the blood stream, to the liver, heart, other parts of the body then finally to the smooth muscles in the lungs.
What are the 4 different types of absorption?
1. Aqueous absorption
2. Lipid absorption
3. Carrier mediated absorption
4. Pinocytosis (engulfing.)
Why doesn't everything cross the blood brain barrier?
Due to the capillary endothelial cells, because some drugs simply don't need to cross the BBB and because it is required that the substance be lipid soluble in order to cross the BBB.
Where does metabolism primarily occur? Where else can it take place?
Metabolism primarily occurs in the liver. However it can occur in the lungs, intestinal wall and endothelial vascular wall.
Describe the 1st pass effect?
It is commonly known with oral medicines. (tablets.) If most of the drug is deactivated before it reaches the general circulation then there is a high first pass effect.
How can a first pass effect be avoided?
It can be avoided if the med is given in an alternate form such as by injection, buccal or sublingual, transdermal, rectal and inhalation.
Where does elimination primarily occur?
In the kidneys.
What is plasma clearance?
The ratio of elimination to the concentration of drug in the body fluid.
What is meant by the term half life?
The time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by one half.
When does accumulation occur?
When you're dosing more frequent than what you're eliminating.
What is meant by the term maintenance dose?
When the dosing must equal the elimination to maintain a level in the body.
What is required for a drug to have a response?
It must reach the critical threshold and stay above it.
How much of an aerosol actually reaches the lungs?
Describe Lung availability/total systemic availability ratio.
The proportion of drug available from the lungs, out of the systematically available drug.
Where does the therapeutic effect come from.
It comes from the inhaled drug deposited in the airways.
Where do side effects come from?
It comes from the total amount of drug absorbed into the system.
What is the best ratio to have?
What the drug does to the body.
Describe Drug/Receptor interaction.
The drug crosses the cell membrane into the cells cytoplasm and attaches to an extracellular receptor. The drug/receptor complex causes a change in the cells DNAs.
The drug causes an ion chamber to open.
Receptors are linked to G proteins which mediate bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation. can be endogenous or exogenous.
What are three components of drug/receptor G protein interaction.
1. The drug receptor.
3. Effector system.
When a drug attached to a G protein linked receptor, these 3 components causes a cell response to the drug by either activating or inhibiting a second messenger within the cell.
What can you do to increase the response of a drug?
increase the drug concentration.
A special cases of synergism, in which one drug has no effect but can increase the activity of the other drug is an example of ____________.
A drug that has the opposite effect, an unusual effect, or no effect compared with the effect it is supposed to have is said to be an __________________.
Refers to when two drugs work against one another. For example Drug A causes bronchoconstriction and Drug B causes bronchodialation?
The term ________________ describes an allergic or immune related response to a drug that can be quite serious, even requiring ventilatory support.
The term ______________ describes a decreasing intensity of response to a drug over time, over time more of the drug is required to produce the same effect.
The term ________________ describes a rapid decrease in responsiveness to a drug.
The _____________ of a drug is the greatest response that can be produced by the drug, so that even at a higher dose, no further response will occur.
A drug that binds to a receptor (affinity) and causes a response (efficacy) is called an ___________
What are four factors that increase the L/T ratio with inhaled drugs?
1. Efficient delivery devices
2. Inhaled drugs with high first pass metabolism
3. Mouth washing (rinsing and spitting)
4. Use of a reservoir device
List five routes of administration that can bypass the first pass effect?
The primary site for drug excretion is the _____________.
_______________ is a measure of the ability of the body to rid itself of a drug.
The time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by one half is called the ____________.
Plasma Half life.
What percentage of inhaled drug is swallowed? reaches the lungs? impacts the mouth and contributes to the amount reaching the stomach?
90% , 10 % , 50-60%