Infection Controls & Surgical Asepsis & Assisting w/Surgical Prcedures

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Infection Controls & Surgical Asepsis & Assisting w/Surgical Prcedures
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1

Anaphylaxis

an exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction that in severe cases leads to vascular collapse, bronchospasms & shock

2

antibodies

immuglobulins prodded by immune system in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigenic substances.

3

antigen

a foreign substance that causes the production of a specific antibody.

4

autoimmune

pertaining to a disturbance in the immune system in which the body reacts against its own tissue.

Examples:

multiple sclerosis

rheumatoid arthritis

systemic lupus erythematous

5

candidiasis

an infection caused by a yeast tat typically affects the vaginal mucosa & skin

6

coagulate

to form into clots

7

contaminated

solid pathogens or infectious material; NONSTERILE

8

Disinfectant

a liquid chemical that is capable of eliminating many or all pathogens but is not effective against bacterial spores

9

fomites

contaminated, nonliving objects (e.g. examination room equipment) that can transmit infectious organisms.

10

germicides

agents that destroy pathogenic organisims

11

hereditary

pertaining to a characteristic, condition or disease transmitted from parent to offspring on the DNA strand

12

interferon

a protein formed when a cell is exposed to a virus; the protein formed blocks viral action on the cell & protects against viral invasion

13

opportunistic infection

infections caused by a normally nonpathogenic organism in a host whose resistance hs been decreased

14

palliative

a substance that relieves or alleviates the symptoms of a disease w/o curing the diseae

15

parenteral

the injection or introduction of substances into the body by any route other than the digestive tract.

  • subcurations
  • intrevenous
  • intramuscular administration
16

pathogrenic

pertaining to a disease-causing microorganism

17

permeable

allowing a substance to pass or soak through

18

pyemia

the presence of pus-forming organism to the blood

19

relapse

the recurrence of the symptoms of a disease after apparent recovery

20

remission

the partial or complete disappearance of the clinical and subjective characteristics of a chronic or malignant disease

21

resident bacteria

bacteria that live in or on a certain part of the body, such as skin or mucosa

22

rhinitis

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose

23

spores

a thick-walled, dormant form of bacteria that is very resistant to disinfection

24

sterile

free of all microorganisms, pathogenic & nonpathogenic

25

tinea

any fungal skin disease that results in scaling, itching & inflamation

26

transit bacteria

bacteria temporarily living in or on a certain body part, such as the hands

27

urticaria

a skin eruption that creates inflamed wheals; hives

28

vectors

animals or insects (eg, ticks) that transmit the causative organisims of disease

29

disease

any sustained, harmful alteration of the normal structure, function, or metabolism of an organism or cell

30

pathogenic microorganisms characteristics

  • falls into the category of infections diseases
  • a pathogen may be ingested, injected, or inhaled & never cause disease.

include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and ricketsttes

31

Apply the chain - of - infection process to healthcare practice,

  • The chain of infection is the way infectious disease is spread
  1. Infectious Agent (the infection, pathogen)
  2. Reservoir Host (me, animal, plant, soil)
  3. Portal of Exit (sneeze, blood)
  4. Mode of Transportation (droplet, air, mosquito)
  5. Portal of Entry (Nose, skin, mouth)
  6. Susceptible Agent (person who is susceptible to the disease (HIV)
32

INFECTIOUS AGENT

How the disease is spread

  • Virus
  • bacteria
  • protozoa
  • fungi
  • ricketsaie
33

RESERVOIR HOST

  • you
  • water
  • soil
34

PORTAL OF EXIT

How the pathogen escapes

  • through cough
  • diharea
  • sneezing
35

Mode of transmission

Indirect Transmission

  • air
  • coughing
  • contamination of food
  • contact w/individuals
36

Portal of entry

  • mouth
  • Cuts
  • Eyes
  • Reproduction System
37

Susceptible Host

1st line of defense or pathogens:

  • Skin
  • pH Factor
  • Tears
  • Immune System
38

VIRAL CELL INVASION

  • Viral takeover of cellular DNA & RNA material
  • Cannot be treated w/antibiotics
  • NOT CELLS but PARASITES w/in a cell
39

BACTERIAL INFECTIONS

Can be treated w/Anitbiotics

40

Summarize the impact of the inflammatory response on the body's ability to defend itself against infection

  • the Body's ability to defend itself against infection
  • involves the body's reaction to the introduction of a foreign substance or antigen
  • increase in blood flow to the site
  • release of inflammatory mediators that attack WBC to the cites.
  • WBC's isolate & destroy the source of inflammation
41

Summarize the impact of the inflammatory response on the body's ability to defend itself against infection

To defend itself , the body initiates specific responses to destroy and remove pathogenic organisms and their by products . Four different symptoms of inflammation : redness , swelling, pain , and heat .

42

TYPES OF INFECTIONS

LOCAL

  1. Acute Infection
  2. Chronic Infection
  3. Latent Infection
  4. Opportunistic Infections
43

ACUTE INFECTION

  • A rapid onset of symptoms but lasts a short time
  • Common Cold
44

Chronic Infection

  • An infection that persists for a long period, sometimes for life
  • Hepatitis B
  • asymptomatic, or w/o symptoms
45

Latent Infection

  • a persistent infection in which the symptoms cycle through periods to relapse & remission.
  • Viral Infection
  • Herpes Simplex Type 1 & 2
  • causes lesions
  • Onset by; illness w/fever, sunburn, stress
  • Cold Sores
46

Opportunistic Infections

  • Caused by organisms that are not typically pathogenic but occur in hosts w/impaired immune response systems become weekend.
  • HIV
47

Apply the concepts of medical asepsis to the healthcare setting

  • Removed or destruction of pathogens
  • used to create an environment that is as free of pathogens as possible
48

Apply the concepts of surgical asepsis to the healthcare setting

  • Removed or destruction of pathogens
  • Used when the patient's skin or mucus membranes are disrupted
49

SANITATION

the cleaning of contaminated articles or surfaces to reduce the # of microorganisms

50

DISINFECTION

involves the use of physical or chemical means to destroy pathogens or their components

51

STERILIZATION

Removes of all living microorganisms

52

List SIX common errors of disinfection

  1. Instruments are not thoroughly sanitized
  2. Sanitized instruments are not dried
  3. The disinfectant solutions left in container & evaporation changes its concentration
  4. Solutions are not changed after the recommended period for use has expired.
  5. solutions are not prepared properly or are not mixed properly before use
  6. the manufactures recommended temp for use & storage is not maintained
53

Explain the 5 major areas included in the OSHA Compliance Guidelines

A. Barrier Protection - wear PPE
B. Environmental Protection - minimizing the rusk of isolating any hazard
C. Housekeeping Controls - schedule cleaning or decontamination of work area
D. Hepatitis B Vaccination - free to employees at risk to exposure to blood borne pathogens
E. Postexposure Follow Up - if someone is exposed through a needle stick or bite , certain procedures are taken .

54

Describe the five conditions needed for microorganisms

A. nutrients
B. moisture
C. temperature
D. oxygen
E. neutral pH

55

Norma flora

microbes that live and grow in a certain area

56

List five bodily fluids that have been identified as potentially infectious by CDC .

A. Cerebrospinal fluid
B. liquid or semiliquid blood
C. vaginal or seminal liquid
D. saliva in dental procedures
E. unknown body fluid

57

Identify your four safety rules that should be followed in the ambulatory care setting to comply with OSHA's environmental protection guidelines.

A. read warning labels on biohazard containers and equipment .
B. minimize splashing or squirting of potential infectious material
C. bandage any breaks or lessons before gloving
D. if body surface is exposed, scrub with antimicrobial soap