Modern Chemistry: chemistry chapter 2 Flashcards


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Modern Chemistry
Chapter 2
chap 2 study for test
updated 6 years ago by kathryndmi
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1

SI measurements

mass, temperature, amount of substance

2

derived SI units

area, volume, density, molar mass, molar volume, and energy

3

si base unit: mass

kilogram

4

si base unit: temperature

kelvin

5

si base unit: amount of substance

mole

6

mass

measure of quantity of matter

7

weight

measure of gravitational pull on matter

8

volume

amount of space occupied by object

9

denity

ratio of mass to volume

10

density formula

density=mass/volume

11

temp. c to f

(c x 9/5)+32

12

temp. f to c

5/9(f-32)

13

c to k

c+273.15

14

k to c

k-273.15

15

f to k

1. f to c

5/9(f-32)

then

2. c to k

c+273.15

16

k to f

1. k to c

k-273.15

then

2. c to f

( c x 9/5) + 32

17

conversion factors are

relationships between units

18

dimensional analysis

mathematical technique. allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements

19

quantity sought=

quantity given x conversion factor

20

in dimensional analysis, always look at ____________

what is given

21

when converting units, state the ______ and _____ quantities

given; needed

22

when converting, state the ___ and conversion factors needed to ____ cancel units

equalities; cancel

23

when converting, ___ all units on top, and _____ by the numbers on bottom

multiply; divide

24

when converting, make sure all the old units _____

cancel

25

sig. figures. in measurement, there is always some amount of _____

uncertainty

26

all nonzero numbers and zeros between are ______

significant

27

zeros at the ______ of a number and used as a placeholder are never significant

beginning

28

zeros at the end of a number are significant only if a _____ is present and to the right of the ______

decimal; decimal

29

a decimal point placed after zeros indicates that they are ______

significant

30

how many are significant in this number? 0.00000912 cm

3

31

how many are significant? 4.986 g

4

32

how many are significant? 1,250,000 g

3

33

when multiplying and dividing, how do you determine sig figures in your answer?

by using the least amount of sig figures in the original parts of the problem

34

when adding and subtracting , how do you determine sig figures in your answer?

by using the least number of decimal places in the original parts of the problem

35

m is a number greater than or equal to what?

1

36

m is a number greater than or equal to _ and less than __

1; 10

37

can n be either negative or positive?

yes

38

what does n represent?

the number of decimal places moved

39

convert the following from scientific notation to standard.

8.019 x 10 -6

0.000008019

40

convert the following to scientific notation

21450

2.1450 x 104

41

when converting to scientific notation, if a number is one or greater, you will have a ______ exponent

positive

42

when converting to scientific notation, if a number is less than one, you will have a ____ exponent

negative

43

when converting to scientific notation, if you have a positive exponent, move the decimal to the ______

left

44

when converting to a scientific notation, if oyu have a negative expoonent, move the decimal to the ____

right

45

when converting to standard, if the exponent is positive, you will have a ___ number

large (>1)

46

when converting to standard, if the exponent is negative, you will have a ____ number

small (<1)

47

when converting to standard, if the exponent is positive, you will move the decimal to the ___

right

48

when converting to standard, if the exponent is negative, you will move the decimal to the _____

left

49

when adding and subtracting scientific notation, the exponents must be ___ before you can add or subtract

equal

50

when + and - scientific notation, if you the decimal to the right, you __

subtract

51

when + and - scientific notation, if you move the decimal to the left, you ___

add

52

when you multiply scientific notation, what do you do to the exponents?

you add the exponents algebraically

53

when you divide scientific notation, what do you do to the exponents?

the denominator is subtracted from the numerator

54

what does precision refer to?

closeness of a set of values obtained from identical measurements of something. so basically, when all the stuff is near each other, even if it may not be near the center of the target or goal value

55

what does accuracy refer to?

refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value. so basically, when all the stuff is close to the center of target or goal value

56

percent error formula

% error=

l your result - accepted value l

accepted value x 100