What Is Phylogeny?
The evolutionary history of a species of group of related species
What is systematics?
Classifies the organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships
What is Taxonomy?
The ordered division and naming of organisms
What 2 main features did Linnaeus use in his system?
- Two-part names for species
- Hierarchical classification
What are the rules for binomial nomenclature
- First letter of genus is capitalized
- The entire species name is italicized
What are the taxonomic groups used?
What does a phylogenetic tree represent?
A hypothesis about evolutionary relationships
What can we learn from a phylogenetic tree?
Closely related species have similar characteristics
What can't we learn from phylogenetic trees?
When a species evolved or how much genetic change has occurred
How did Palumbi and baker use whale meat mitochondrial DNA to determine whether market sold meat was illegal or legal?
They applied phylogeny and brought 13 samples of whale meat from japanese fish markets and sequenced part of the mitochondrial DNA from each and compared it to their own species (DNA gene deconstruction)
What are the main ways phylogenies are inferred?
From molecular and morphological data
Compare Homologous to Analogous
- Analogous- Same Functions, Diff. in fundamental structure, Diff ancestry
- Homologous- Diff. Functions, Similar in fundamental structure, Common ancestry
What is meant by convergent evolution?
They adapt independently from each other and it has to do with their environment
How are computers useful in determining homologous sequences?
They look at proteins RNA/ DNA sequence and it helps us analyze comparable DNA segments from different organisms
How can branch length in a phylogenetic tree be used?
- As Hypothesis
- It allows us to predict that shared feature by descendants: they are present in their ancestor
How is Maximum Parsimony used in forming trees?
Determines which tree can explain data with the least amount of evolutionary change
How is Maximum Likelihood used in forming trees?
Determines which tree has the highest probability of generating observed data
How do we use both mtDNA and rRNA in deciphering evolutionary changes?
Its useful for investigating relationships between taxa that diverged many many years ago
How could horizontal gene transfer have taken place?
Exchanging of transposable elements and plasmids, viral infection, and fusion of other organisms