Zoology exam 1 study guide

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1

What is the experimental group in an experiment?

The group with a disturbance.

2

Multicellular, eukaryotic organisms are known as...

Animals

3

A single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle

Prokaryote

4

An organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.

Eukaryote

5

When a single cell divides into many cells (blastomeres) resulting in little or no increase in size

Cleavage

6

Which has more DNA? Eukaryote or Prokaryote

Eukaryote

7

Organisms that can synthesize their food from inorganic sources using light or another source of energy

Autotrophs

8

All heterotrophs depend for their nutrients directly or indirectly on..

Autotrophs

9

Organisms lacking this ability must obtain their food supplies directly from the environment.

Heterotrophs

10

What were some problems with Darwin's theory of evolution?

  • He did not know the source of variation (genetics).
  • There was no accurate age of the earth.
11

Describe the experimental method.

1. Predict from a tentative explanation,how a system being studied would respond to a disturbance

2. Making a disturbance

3. Comparing observed results to predicted ones.

12

What is the control group in an experiment?

The group without a disturbance.

13

An impact site that coincides with the K-T boundary event.

Chicxulub crater

14

What the age of the earth?

4 billion years old

15

What were some problems with Darwin's theory of evolution?

  • He did not know the source of variation (genetics).
  • There was no accurate age of the earth.
16

What are the features of earth making it conducive to life?

Water, atmosphere, light, great location, right combination of elements

17

What was earth's early environment like?

There was a presence of methane, hydrogen gas, water, and ammonia. However, there was not a presence of Oxygen.

18

Why does the origin and maintenance of life on earth depend critically upon water?

  • Water has a high heat capacity
  • It has the ability to hydrogen bond
  • High heat of vaporization
  • Water has a unique density behavior during temperature changes
  • High surface tension
  • Excellent solvent
19

_____________________________ occur on the abyssal plain in areas of submarine volcanic activity, which produces a hard substrate and hot, sulfide-rich water.

Hydrothermal vents

20

What are the 5 main points of the Darwinian evolution?

  1. Change over time
  2. Common descent
  3. Evolution is gradual
  4. Changes occur in population not individuals
  5. Natural selection is the mechanism.
21

The concept of nonliving matter, including organic molecules and water, assembled to form self-replicating units

Self Assembly

22

When a prokaryote is engulfed and modified to become a eukaryotic organelle.

Endosymbiosis

23

Which were the earliest self-replication molecules?

RNA

24

The self assembly of amphiphilic molecules is responsible for what.

The semipermeable membrane of a cell

25

The membrane that forms around a fertilized ovum and prevents penetration by additional spermatozoan

Fertilization membrane

26

How long did the Proterozoic era last?

2 billion years

27

What was a major event that happened in the Proterozoic era?

The Eukaryotes evolved through endosymbiosis.

28

How long ago did Eukaryotes evolve through endosymbiosis?

2.7 billion year ago

29

What aquatic organism developed in the Proterozoic era? and what did they manifest as?

Cyanobacteria. They formed as stromatolites.

30

What are the 3 domains of life?

Bacteria, Archaea, Eucarya

31

The transfer of genes between organisms in a manner other than traditional reproduction.

Lateral gene transfer

32

When was the Paleozoic Era?

640 million years ago.

33

What are the six periods of the Paleozoic era?

  1. Cambrian
  2. Ordivician
  3. Silurian
  4. Devonian
  5. Carboniferous
  6. Permian
34

fossiliferous deposit exposed in Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.

Burgess Shale

35

Explosion of diversity over a relatively short period of time, that led to the appearance of a huge number of complex multi-celled organisms.

Cambrian explosion

36

The Science of identifying kind (species) of organisms is known as what?

Taxonomy

37

Haikouichthys were believed to have lived in what period?

The Cambrian period

38

Describe the Haikouichthys.

They are jawless vertebrates

39

What occurred in the Ordivician period?

  1. There was a major radiation of animal phyla especially echinoderms.
  2. Mass Extinction
40

When did the Devonian period occur?

400 million year ago

41

What Occurred in the Devonian period?

  1. Major radiation of bony fishes
  2. First Terrestial animals evolve
42

An egg with moderate yolk at the vegetal pole

Mesolecithal egg

43

How did the Paleozoic era end?

With a major mass extiction.

44

In what period did the major mass extinction of the Paleozoic era occur?

Permian

45

What many years ago did the Permian period occur?

225 million years ago.

46

Name the three periods of the Mesozoic Era.

  1. Triassic
  2. Jurassic
  3. Cretaceous
47

What event took place in the Jurassic Period?

The age of reptiles

48

One of the hallmarks of deuterostome development is that early cleavage divisions are..

Radial

49

What took place in the cretaceous period?

Mass Extinction

50

Name the two periods of the Cenozoic Era.

  1. Pleistocene
  2. Quaternary
51

Particles of glass from meteorite impact.

Microtektites

52

When do we say a species is experiencing mass extinction?

When there is a greater than 60% loss of species in 1 million years

53

When a single cell divides into many cells (blastomeres) resulting in little or no increase in size

Cleavage

54

What shapes diversity?

Extinction.

55

Where is the Chicxulub crater located?

in Yucatan Penninsula, Mexico

56

What are the three evidences for the K-T impact event?

  1. An Iridium layer in the earth
  2. Presence of shocked quartz (R)
  3. The presence of Microtektites.
57

What are three disadvantages of sexual reproduction?

  1. Slower reproduction rate
  2. Less reliable
  3. Takes time and energy to find mate
58

What is the Chicxulub crater

An impact site that coincides with the K-T boundary event.

59

Where is the Chicxulub crate located?

in Yucatan Penninsula, Mexico

60

What are some extinct Animals that could suggest a 6th mass extinction?

Dodo Bird

Passeneger Pigeon

Carolina Parakeet

61

What is the difference between a theory and a belief.

A theory is an understanding, not a belief.

62

What were some early evolution ideas?

  1. Plato's "essentialism"; Ideal Forms
  2. Aristotle's "Scala Naturae"
  3. Special Creation
63

What are the difference between creation and evolution?

CREATION

species do not change

each species separately created

earth and life are young

EVOLUTION

species change over time

species derive from common ancestors

Earth and life are old

64

What was Lamark's evolutionary idea?

The inheritance of acquired characteristics.

65

What was Hutton's evolutionary idea?

Earth is old. Gradualism

66

What was Lyell's evolutionary idea?

"Uniformitarionism". Natural Forces do not change over time.

67

What did Darwin train as?

A Physician and Minister

68

What opportunity did he receive in 1831?

an opportunity to travel aboard the H.M.S Beagle

69

What were Darwin's influences?

  1. Animal Variation
  2. Fossil record;Lyell's principle of geology
  3. Malthus' Essay
70

What was Malthus' essay?

An essay on principle of population

71

Which of Charles Darwin's book was published in 1859?

"The origin of species by mean of natural seletion"

72

What happen in 1858?

Alfred Wallace and Charles Darwin published a joint paper arguing the theoryof evolution and natural selection

73

Who was Alfred Russel Wallace?

A co-discoverer of the theory of evolution.

74

What are the main points of the Darwinian evolution?

  1. Change over time
  2. Common descent
  3. Evolution is gradual
  4. Changes occur in population not individuals
  5. Natural selection is the mechanism.
75

What were some problems with Darwin's theory of evolution?

  • He sis not know the source of variation (genetics).
  • There was no accurate age of the earth.
76

What is an example of the theory of evolution's 'change over time'?

Horses going from having multiple fingers to one.

77

What are the main points of common descet?

  1. Homology
  2. Homoplasy
  3. Ontogeny
  4. Heterochrony
78

What does Homology refer to?

Structures that share an evolutionary origin.

79

What does Homoplasy refer to?

Similar function but not related evolutionary

80

What is an example of Homoplasy?

Bird and insect wing

81

What is ontogeny?

Pattern of development

82

What is Heterochrony?

Change in timing of development.

83

Paedomorphisis

retention of juvenile features by adults

84

An egg with a little yolk present in most invertebrates is referred to as...

an Isolecithal egg

85

Explosion of diversity over a relatively short period of time, that led to the appearance of a huge number of complex multi-celled organisms.

Cambrian explosion

86

What is an example of changes occurring in populations?

  • Variability in beak depth in medium ground finches.
  • Ontogenetic change ( change in pattern of development)
87

What are some examples of changes occurring in populations?

  • Variability in beak depth in medium ground finches.
  • Ontogenetic change ( change in pattern of development)
88

What is the modern synthesis for Neo-Darwinism

  • Small genetic changes are important (Microevolution)
  • Genetic diversity in population is key. (gene pool)
  • Natural Selection is the main mechanism
  • There is not a constant rate of change.
89

Explain Gradual Equilibrium.

Gradualism is selection and variation that happens more gradually. Over a short period of time it is hard to notice.

90

Explain Punctuated Equilibrium.

In punctuated equilibrium, change comes in spurts. There is a period of very little change, and then one or a few huge changes occur, often through mutations in the genes of a few individuals.

91

What is Adaptive radiation?

Rapid Speciation

92

What the two concepts for Adaptive Radiation?

  • Ecological opportunity
  • Morphological innovation
93

Environmental conditions that both permit the persistence of a lineage within a community, as well as generate divergent natural selection within that lineage is referred to as..?

Ecological Opportunity

94

What are some examples of animals that have experienced adaptive radiation

Finches

Cichlid Fishes

Land plants

95

What is an example of organisms that undergo Binary fission

Unicellular organisms

96

What are the three components of systemic zoology

  1. Discovery of Species (Taxonomy)
  2. Reconstruct Evolutionary Relationships
  3. Communicate relationships using informative system (cladistics)
97

The Science of identifying kind (species) if organisms is known as what?

Taxonomy

98

What was published in 1758 by Linnaeus?

The system of Binomial Nomenclature 10th Edition Systema Naturae

99

Taxa is what?

Several different species

100

Placing living organisms into groups is known as what?

Classification

101

The Father of Modern Classification is named who?

Karl Von Linne

102

What was published in 1758 by Linnaeus?

The system of Binomial Nomenclature 10th Edition Systema Naturae

103

What is the required format for the binomial nomenclature?

Genus+Species Epithet

104

Within a Binomial Nomenclature, what case is Genus?

Capitalized

105

Within a Binomial Nomenclature, what case is species epithet?

Lowercase

106

What is the Hierarchical classification system?

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
107

What are the 4 species concepts?

  1. Typological (Morphological)
  2. Biological
  3. Evolutionary
  4. Phylogenetic
108

What is the typological (Morphological) species concept based on?

  • Relies on morphological similarity
  • Holotype
  • Phenotypic group
109

A single physical example (or illustration) of an organism

Holotype

110

A subjective classification in which organisms are classified as the same species if they appear identical by morphological (anatomical) criteria.

Typological or Morphological Species Concept.

111

An individual's observable traits, such as height, eye color, and blood type.

Phenotype

112

Which type of blastomere do deuterostomes normally posses?

Indeterminate

113

What is the Biological species concept based on?

  • Reproductive isolation in which a community of populations are isolated from others.
  • Inbreeding of organisms that share common descent.
  • defines mechanism
114

Defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance.

Biological Species Concept.

115

What are some problems with classifying animals with the biological species concept?

Hybridization. (Mule, Liger, Zonkey..etc)

116

How does the Evolutionary species concept classify animals?

  • Includes time (Fossils)
  • Common descent
  • Emphasis on lineage (single lineage that maintains identity from other lineages)
  • Defines result of speciation.
117

Classifies species as a lineage (an ancestral-descendant sequence of populations) evolving separately from others and with its own unitary evolutionary roles and tendencies

Evolutionary species concept.

118

How does the phylogenetic species concept classify animals?

  • Smallest group defined as distinct from other groups of organisms
  • Emphasizes on independently evolved groups of organisms
  • Defines pattern
  • Uses new techniques such as DNA barcoding
  • No single concept is accepted as 100% perfect.
119

What opportunity did Darwin receive in 1831?

an opportunity to travel aboard the H.M.S Beagle

120

How does speciation occur?

It occurs due to barriers to gene flow and reproductive isolation.

121

What are some ways Speciation occurs by reproductive isolation?

  • Timing
  • Location
  • Behavior
  • Sexual Selection
122

What is the physical separation of a species?

Allopatric sepeciation.

123

Multiple species diverging at the same time is a result of what?

Vicariance

124

One (or a few) species diverging at the same time.

Dispersal

125

What speciation occurs within a single habitat. (No physical Separation).

Sympatric

126

What is the purpose of a phylogenetic tree?

Reconstructs evolutionary history of species.

127

In phylogenetics, a shared derived character or trait state that distinguishes a clade from other organisms

synapomorphy

128

In phylogenetics, the heritable traits that can be compared across organisms, such as physical characteristics (morphology), genetic sequences, and behavioral traits.

Characters

129

In phylogenetics, Anything that can be described or measured.

characters

130

The initial condition of a species is considered what?

Ancestral

131

The new condition of a species is considered what?

Derived

132

An egg with moderate yolk at the vegetal pole

Mesolecithal egg

133

A group of organisms that share derived characters

Clade

134

Which groupings are the only groupings permitted on a cladogram

Monophyletic groupings

135

Cladograms are shown as..

  • Nested Hierarchy
  • Angle Diagram
136

What are the two concepts for Adaptive Radiation?

  • Ecological opportunity
  • Morphological innovation
137

What is the principle of parsimony referred to as?

Occam's razor

138

What the factors of asexual reproduction?

  • The offspring are clones
  • The animals are normally unicellular
  • They are invertebrates
  • There are a few Vertebrates that undergo asexual reproduction
139

What are the 4 basic methods of Asexual reproduction.

  1. Binary Fission
  2. Budding
  3. Fragmentation
  4. Gemmulation
140

What are examples of organisms that undergo Binary fission

Unicellular organisms

141

What are examples of organisms that undergoBudding

Hydra

142

What are examples of organisms that undergo fragmentation

Sponges

143

What are examples of organisms that undergo gemmulation

Fresh water sponges

144

What are the factors of asexual reproduction?

  • The offspring are clones
  • The animals are normally unicellular
  • They are invertebrates
  • There are a few Vertebrates that undergo asexual reproduction
145

Which of Charles Darwin's book was published in 1859?

"The origin of species by means of natural selection"

146

What the factors of sexual reproduction?

  • 2 parents required
  • Haploid gametes
147

Male gametes are generally what size?

Small

148

female gametes are generally what size?

Large

149

What is the meaning of Dioecious?

separate sexes

150

What is the meaning of monoecious?

Having both a male and female gonad

151

What is it called to have both a male and female gonad

Hermaphroditism

152

A type of asexual reproduction in which the offspring develops from unfertilized eggs

Parthenogenesis

153

A type of asexual reproduction in which the species is all female

Parthenogenesis

154

What are the advantages of sexual reproduction?

  1. Genetic variation
  2. Children different from parents
155

What are some disadvantages of sexual reproduction?

  1. Slower reproduction rate
  2. Less reliable
  3. Takes time and energy to find mate
156

What are the three Germ layers?

Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm

157

What are the adult organs derived from

Each germ layer.

158

the innermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the lining of the gut and associated structures.

Endoderm

159

the middle layer of an embryo in early development, between the endoderm and ectoderm.

Mesoderm

160

the outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the epidermis and nerve tissue.

Ectoderm

161

What do you call animals with no Body cavity?

card image

Acoelomate

162

What do you call animals with a body cavity in which the mesoderm only lines the ectoderm?

card image

Pseudocoelomate

163

What do you call animals with a body cavity in which the body cavity is surrounded by the mesoderm.

card image

Eucoelomate

164

An egg with a little yolk present in most invertebrates is referred to as...

an Isolethal egg

165

An egg with moderate yolk at the vegetal pole

Mesolicithal egg

166

An egg with an abundant yolk at the Vegetal pole such as a chicken's..

Telolecithal

167

An egg with a central mass of yolk such as insects.

Centrolecithal.

168

This is located at the top of the Zygote and it is where the cells become the animal.

Animal Pole

169

This is located at the bottom of the zygote and it is where the yolk is.

Vegetal Pole

170

A type of cleavage that divides completely through the egg.

Holoblastic

171

A type of cleavage in which the cells on top of an egg divide completely while the yolk does not.

Meroblastic

172

What type of cleavage do mammals encounter?

Rotational

173

What is referred to as a hollow ball of cells?

card image

Blastula

174

One of the hallmarks of deuterstome development is that early cleavage divisions are..

Radial

175

protostomes typically display what kind of cleavage?

Spiral

176

When the blastomere radially cleaves perpendicular to polar axis and the cells' fate are not determined early on.

Inderterminate cleavage

177

Which type of blastomere do deuterostomes normally posses?

Indeterminate

178

Which type of blastomere do protostomes normally posses?

Determinate

179

When the blastomere spirally cleaves and the cells' fate are determined early on.

Determinate cleavage

180

What type of embryo does an indeterminate blastomere produce?

Regulative Embryo

181

What type of embryo does a determinate blastomere produce?

Mosaic Embryo

182

This occurs when a coelom (body cavity) is formed by splitting the mesodermal embryonic tissue.

Schizocoely

183

This occurs when a mesoderm (middle layer) is formed in a developing embryo, in which the coelom forms from pouches "pinched" off of the digestive tract

Enterocoely

184

Which type of Animals undergo Schizocoely?

Protostomes

185

Which type of Animals undergo Enterocoely?

Deuterostomes

186

What is the developmental pattern of a protostome?

Mouth first, the Anus

187

What is the developmental pattern of a deuterostome?

Anus first, then mouth

188

A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.

Gamete

189

the production or development of an ovum.

oogenesis

190

the production or development of mature spermatozoa.

Spermatogenesis

191

A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.

Meiosis

192

How many daughter cells are formed in Meiosis?

4

193

Male gametes are what in animals?

sperm

194

Female gametes are what in animals?

eggs

195

A eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

Zygote

196

The fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism

Fertilization

197

The membrane that forms around a fertilized ovum and prevents penetration by additional spermatozoon

Fertilization membrane

198

When a single cell divides into many cells (blastomeres) resulting in little on no increase in size

Cleavage

199

An animal embryo at the early stage of development when it is a hollow ball of cells

card image

Blastula

200

An opening for the gut is referred to as what?

A Blastopore

201

In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the animal's...

Anus

202

In protostome development, the first opening in development, the blastopore, becomes the animal's..

Mouth

203

A type of cell produced by cleavage (cell division) of the zygote after fertilization and is an essential part of blastula formation.

Blastomere

204

A developmental stage of some animal embryos in which different germ layers are present

Gastrula

205

A phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure (germ layers).

Gastrulation

206

The process in which the body organs form, and cell interact and differentiate.

morphogenesis

207

The primitive gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing embryo is known as..

The archenteron

208

An Embryo derived from two embryonic germ layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm

Diploblastic

209

An embryo having three primary germ layers

Triploblastic

210

A cell or organism that has paired chromosomes, one from each parent

Diploid

211

A cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes

Haploid

212

In common cladistic usage, a ________________ is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.

monophyletic group

213

A __________________ is a group of organisms that includes an ancestor but not all of its descendants.

paraphyletic group

214

a group of organisms that are classified into the same group but came from different ancestors

Polyphyletic group