Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: Organ Systems Flashcards


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1

Integumentary (Skin) System

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Major component organs: Epidermal and dermal regions; cutaneous sense organs and glands

Function:

  • Protects deeper organs for mechanical, chemical, and bacterial injury and from drying out
  • Excretes salts and urea
  • Aids in regulation of body temperature
  • Produces Vitamin D
2

Skeletal System

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Major component organs: Bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and joints

Function:

  • Body support and protection of internal organs
  • Provides levers for muscular action
  • Cavities provide site for blood cell formation
3

Muscular System

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Major component organs: muscles attached to the skeleton

Function:

  • Primary function is to contract or shorten; in doing so, skeletal muscles allow locomotion (Running, walking, etc.), grasping and manipulation of the environment, and facial expression
  • Generates heat
4

Nervous System

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Major component organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors

Function:

  • Allows body to detect changes in its internal and external environment and to respond to such information by activating appropriate muscles or glands
  • Helps maintain homeostasis of the body via rapid transmission of electrical signals
5

Endocrine System

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Major component organs: Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands; ovaries, testes, and pancreas

Function:

  • Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes growth and development; produces chemical messengers called hormones that travel in the blood to exert their effect(s) on various target organs of the body
6

Cardiovascular System

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Major component organs: heart, blood vessels, and blood

Function:

  • Primarily a transport system that carries blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made; blood is propelled through the blood vessels buy the pumping action of the heart
  • Antibodies and other proteins molecules in the blood protect the body
7

Lymphatic/Immune System

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Major component organs: lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and scattered collections of lymphoid tissue

Function:

  • Picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood
  • cleanses blood of pathogens and debris
  • houses lymphocytes that act via the immune response to protect the body from foreign substances
8

Respiratory System

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Major component organs: nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

Function:

  • Keeps the blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide
  • contributes to the acid-base balance of the blood via its carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
9

Digestive System

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Major component organs: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and accessory structures including teeth, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas

Function:

  • breaks down ingested foods to smaller particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to the body cells
  • Undigested residue removed from the body as feces
10

Urinary System

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Major component organs: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra

Function:

  • Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes including urea, uric acid, and ammonia, which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids
  • maintains water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
11

Reproductive System

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Major component organs:

Male: testes, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, and duct system, which carries sperm to the body exterior

Female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, and vagina

Function:

Male: Provides germ cell called sperm for perpetuation of the species.

Female: Provides germ cells called eggs; the female uterus houses the developing fetus until birth; mammary glands provide nutrition for the infant.