Pharm Comp Ch. 13

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Medication Errors (notes)
Subjects:
pharmacy tech
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1

What are the seven rights

right person

right drug

right dose

right time

right route

right technique

right documention

2

what are the risk factors for medication errors

human factors

illegible handwriting

inadequate patient monitoring

lack of drug knowledge

lack of patient information

rule violations

problems with herbal remedies

problems with over-the-counter drugs

problems with medication sold over the internet

illegal drugs

dangerous abbreviations and numerical terms

3

approximately how many americans die each year from medical errors

98,000, with 44000 occurring in the hospitals

this is more than vehicle accidents, breast cancer and aids combined

4

when do most medical errors occur

1. physicians ordering (39%)

2. nurse's administration (38%)

3. transcription and pharmacy dispensing

5

name the three types of errors

1. prescribing errors

2. dispensing errors

3. administration errors

6

what are the factors that may cause administering errors

misuse of infusion pumps or other parenteral delivery systems (may not be sterile, may be miscalibrated, may cause hematoma)

memory lapses (forgetting to document)

faulty drug identification or dose verification (should be read and verified three times, and verified by another nurse)

7

what information should the given to the patient who is administering their own medication at home

they should be counseled on their condition, treatment plan, prognosis, risks, benefits, alternative treatments, complications that may occur, the brand and generic name of the drug, the purpose, the strength and dose, the side effects, what medications to avoid, best time to take, how to store, what to do for a missed dose, what foods to avoid

8

what can occur with fatigue

slowed reaction times, reduced accuracy, inability to recognize changes in patient, lapses of attention, impaired communication ability, decreased energy

9

what are some examples of exterior noise

outside construction, and traffic

10

what are some examples of interior noise

repair work, customers' conversations, cell phones ringing, and overhead music systems

11

every patients pain tolerance level is....

different

12

diagnostic tests are used to monitor the pharmokenetics of a drug. some tests that are run are...

cbc, serum concentration tests, blood glucose tests, and platelet counts.

13

what are flow sheets used for

they are for recording each dose of each medication, and tracking the response of each medication

14

what over the counter drug may interact with anticoagulants and what may be the result

aspirin, may cause serious bleeding

15

what could happen when you mix amphetamine with aclohol

severe liver damage

16

the joint commission and the ismp made a list of potentially dangerous drug abbreviations called the...

do not use list

17

what information about the patient is needed to reduce risk of medical errors

allergies

age

weight

current diagnoses

current medication regime

18

what are the human factors that increase the risk of medication errors

fatigue

alcohol and/or drug use

illness

distractions

emotional states

unfamiliar situations or problems

19

what are other factors that increase the risk of medication errors

equipment design flaws

inadequate labeling or instructions

communication problems

hard to read handwriting

unsafe work conditions

multiple compounding events involving several people

20

the reporting of medication errors is totally....

voluntary

21

what are the two medication error reporting systems

FDA MedWatch Program

United States Pharmocopeia (USP) Medication Error Reporting Program

22

what ways can you report medication errors to the FDA Medwatch Program

by phone

by fax

by internet

23

what are the most common medication errors that occur in infants and adults

dosing errors

24

who had the final opportunity to avoid a medication error

the health care provider who is administering the medication

25

according to the ismp what are the medications of "highest alert" concerning medication errors

insulin

narcotics and opiates

potassium chloride injections

heparin

concentrated sodium chloride (>0.9%)

26

medwatch provides information about safety issue products including...

prescription and otc drugs

biologics

medical and radiation-emitting devices

special nutritional products (medical foods, dietary supplements, infant formulas)

27

when the pharmacist discovers an error what should he do

inform the patient and prescribing physician immediately

28

what are the penalties for negligence

restrictions on practice

suspension of ability to practice

fines

revocation of ability to practice

jail sentences