What exactly is fear?
An emotional response of dread or anxiety to crime or symbol that a person associates with crime.
- National crime victimization survey (NCVS)
- report and unreported crime
- household members 12 years of age and older.
Cost of crime & Victimization
- Impact of crime
Relationship between fear and crime?
- Level of fear exceeds actual level of crime
- People report fear more than actual crime
- some support for previous victimization and fear of crime.
Fear and demographics.
- Urban problem
- African American
- low SES
- Live in large community
Benefits of fear
- Functional fear
- self-protective action
What is a crime prevention?
Any action designed to reduce the actual level of crime and/or the perceived fear of crime.
Not restricted to criminal justice system includes individuals and groups, public and private.
Crime prevention VS Crime Control
Crime prevention is elimination of crime before initial occurrence or further activity; However, crime control is managing of behavior and does not address fear of crime.
Action taken to avoid the initial development of the disease or problem.
Focuses on individual and situations that exhibit early signs of disease
Where the disease or problem has already manifested itself.
Primary Crime Prevention
Identifies conditions of the physical and social environment that provide opportunity for precipatate criminal acts.
- E.g. Environment design
- Neighborhood watch
- general deterrence
Secondary Crime Prevention
Engages in early identification of potential offenders and seeks to intervene; Prior to commision of crime or deviance.
- e.g. Identification and prediction
- Situational crime prevention
- community policing
- substance abuse
Tertiary Crime Prevention
Deals with actual offenders and involves intervention.... in such a fashion that they will not commit; Majority of activities handle by criminal justice system.
- e.g. Specific deterrence
- Rehabilitation and treatment
Crime is seen as fundamentally about offenders rather than situations.
Crime science is the application of the methods of science to crime and disorder.
A modern which inhibits crime by creating a physical expression of a social fabric which defends itself.
- Natural Surveillance
The ability and desire of legitimate users of an area to lay claim to the area.
- Established boundaries (real or perceived)
- Distinguish between legitimate users and strangers.
- communal atmosphere.
Any action that increase the chance that offenders will be
The outward appearance of an area or properdy as cared for by whose who belong in the area
Prevention in enhanced if the surrounding area is also well cared for and maintained, and that there is little crime in those neighboring area.
Restricting access to property and removing criminal opportunity through design and management of the physical environment.
Reduce crime fear and disorder via design changes that influence social behavior of legitimate users
Extension Defensible space
- Access control
- Target hardening
- Activity support
Reduces opportunity for crime by increasing the effort needed to enter and exit a building or area for the purpose of commiting crime.
Make potential criminal targets more difficult to victimize; Increasing effort offender to commit crime.
Impact of CPTED
Impact of cpted on crime, or fear of crime.
Conflict in CPTED
Some elements have the potential to cancel each other out.
- Encourage law- Obiding use the community and area.
- Functions that enhance interaction between citizens and legitimate users.
How might lighting impact crime?
- Increase in out door activity
- Direct crime in progress
- Identify offender
- Deter offenders
Mixed effect on crime
Results vary by the type of offense, improvements in methodology, and type of data used.
- Positive effects on fear of crime and quality of life
Increase effort or make it difficult for offenders to dispose marked items.
Lack, Doors and Related Access Factors
Increase effort or make it difficult for offenders to gain entry to a location