Ch. 19-21 Blood, Vessels & Heart Flashcards
Which is NOT a major function of the blood?
Production of oxygen
The normal average temperature of blood is around?
The normal pH range for blood is?
Which of the following is NOT a component of blood?
The hematocrit is composed of?
How much of blood plasma is water (approximately)?
Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in disease resistance?
Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in blood clotting?
A hemocrit measures
Percentage of RBC in packed blood
The process by which formed elements of the blood develop is called?
A megakaryoblast will develop into?
During hemopoiesis, some of the myeloid stem cells differentiate into?
This hormone stimulates proliferation of RBC in red bone marrow?
How many hemoglobin molecules are in each RBC?
Ferritin is used to?
A RBC's function is?
A red blood cell without a nucleus is called a?
Which of the following reduces blood loss?
Which of the following is a phagocyte?
Which of the following promotes inflammation?
Which of the following destroys antigen-antibody complexes?
Which of the following destroys immune responses?
Which of the following is NOT an agranular leukocyte?
The process of a white blood cell squeezing between cells to exit the blood vessel is called?
Which of the following do mast cells NOT release?
This hormone causes the development of megakaryoblasts
Which methods provide hemostasis?
Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, and clotting
Once this is formed, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway are identical
Which of the following clotting factors has the most to do with strengthening and stabilizing a blood clot?
Considering Rh blood types, which of the below situations would result in maternal antibodies attacking the fetus?
Mom is Rh positive and fetus is Rh positive
Which of the following opposes the action of thromboxane A2?
Which of the following is an anticoagulant?
This is the mass of tissue from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs?
This is the layer that protects the heart.
To which side of the body is the apex pointed?
To the left
Which of the following consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue?
This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart?
Pericardial (serous) fluid
This consists of mesothelium and connective tissue
Which layer consists of cardiac muscle tissue?
This is used to increase the capacity of the atrium
This marks the boundary between the ventricles
Anterior and posterior intercentricular sulcus
These extend into the auricle
Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
What types of tissue comprise the valves of the heart?
Dense irregular connective tissue
From the left ventricle, where does blood pass?
Aortic semilunar valve
In a fetus, this structure temporarily shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
As each ventricle contracts where does blood move?
Into an artery
As each atrium contracts where does blood move?
Through an atrioventricular valve
Which of the below valves prevents blood from flowing back from the lungs?
In this disorder the aortic valve is narrowed?
This heart structure carries deoxygenated blood.
Right atrium and ventricle
This vessel distributes oxygenated blood to the myocardium
Cardiac muscle fibers electrically connect to neighboring fibers by
Which of the following contains the largest amount of mitochondria?
This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
This is a the correct sequence of structures that allows the normal sequence of excitation to progress through the heart.
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers
By comparison, cardiac muscle cells have ______ contraction plateau time than skeletal muscle cells.
This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.
This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction occurs and blood pressure rises.
Which of these periods represents greatest cardiac output?
The second heart sound represents which of the below events?
Semilunar valves closing
This part of the heart can initiate a contraction and can set a constant heart rate of about 100 beats per minute.
Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.
Which of the below reduces heart rate.
Increased potassium levels
This part of the brain regulates heart rate,
This electrical event represents repolarization of the ventricle.
Which of the below factors would increase Stroke volume?
Increased preload, decreased afterload, and increased contractility
This electrical event triggers contraction of the atria.
What do the following have in common: superficial temporal artery, brachial artery, and dorsal artery of the foot?
They are all pulse points
Which of the following is NOT a response to hypovolemic shock?
Release of vasoconstrictors
All the veins of the systemic circulation drain into the
Superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
The pulmonary trunk divides into
Right and left pulmonary arteries
In fetal circulation, what is the opening between the right and left atria called?
Which of the below vessels is a pulse point at the wrist?
Which of the below vessels supplies blood to the intestines?
Which of the below vessels supplies blood to the kidney?
Which of the below vessels drains blood from the lower leg?
Which of the below vessels drains blood from the head and neck?
Which of the below vessels drains blood from the lower body to the right atrium?
Inferior vena cava
After birth when the umbilical cord is cut, what do the umbilical arteries fill with?
Which of the following is a function of the blood?
Transport of nutrients and wastes, transport of body heat, transport of gases, and defense against toxins and pathogens
Which of the following statements about blood is false?
Normal pH is 6.8-7.0
Formed elements make up about what percentage of blood?
The combination of plasma and formed elements is called
The percent fraction of formed element relative to whole blood is the
A typical adult hematocrit is around?
Cytoplasmic fragments of large cells.
The total volume of blood in the body of an adult male is approximately ______ liters?
5 to 6
Which organ secretes most of the plasma proteins?
The chief differences between plasma and interstitial fluid involves the
Concentration of proteins
The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are
Plasma proteins essential in body defense are the
A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is
The most abundant component of plasma is
A hematocrit provides information on
Formed elements abundance
Which of the following is NOT a component of plasma?
Which of these is NOT one of the formed elements of blood?
Plasma composes about _____ percent of whole blood, and water composes ______ percent of the plasma volume.
55, and 92
Which plasma protein is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure of plasma?
Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by
Plasma is closest in composition to
You are caring for a female adult patient who weighs 40 kg (90lbs). Assuming no loss of blood, what would her approximate blood volume be?
Each of the following is a characteristic of whole blood, except a
Viscosity about the same as water.
Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false?
Red blood cells are about 18 µm in diameter.
The function of red blood cells is to?
Carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells.
More than 95% of the protein in a red blood cell is?
The function of hemoglobin is to?
Each hemoglobin molecule contains
Four iron atoms
Each heme ring in hemoglobin encloses an atom of
Mary is tested for the amount of hemoglobin in her blood. The test results indicate that her hemoglobin level is 16 g/dL of blood. This value indicates that?
Her hemoglobin level is normal.
All the circulating red blood cells originate in the
Red bone marrow
The average lifespan of a red blood cell is
Aged and damaged erythrocytes are broken down by macrophages in the
Spleen, Liver, and Bone marrow
The waste product bilirubin is produced from
Heme molecules lacking iron
Most of the iron that is removed from degraded hemoglobin is
Recycled to the red bone marrow
In adults, erythropoiesis exclusively takes place in
Red bone marrow
The process of red blood cell production is called
The developmental stage at which erythrocytes enter the circulation is as
________ are immature erythrocytes that are present in the circulation.
Which of these proteins functions to store or transport oxygen?
The yellow color that is visible in the eyes and skin in jaundice results from
Excessive amounts of bilirubin in the plasma, extensive breakdown of RBCs, and destruction of hemoglobin
After donation 0.5 liters of blood, one would expect?
An increased reticulocyte count
If bile ducts are blocked,
More bilirubin appears in the plasma, and bilirubin appears in the skin and eyes
Which of the following would you expect to see in increased numbers in a peripheral blood sample after donating a unit of blood?
In which of the following situations would you expect the blood level of bilirubin to be elevated?
A person suffering from hemolysis and an alcoholic with a damaged liver.
A person's blood type is determined largely by the
Presence of specific glycoproteins on the cell membrane
A person with Type A blood has?
Antigen A on the RBCs and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
People with type AB blood are considered the "universal recipient" for transfusions because
Their blood lacks A or B antibodies
Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture would in his finger and mixes it with various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A sera but not with the anti-B or anti-D sera. This means?
Bill could receive type A-negative blood in a transfusion, Bill could donate blood to an individual with type AB blood, Bill is Rh negative, and Bill's plasma contains B antibodies
Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if
An Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus
Which of the following is true of basophils?
Constitute about 1% of WBCs, promotes inflammation, granules contain histamine, and contains dense blue stained granules in the Wright stain.
Which of these descriptions best match the term eosinophils?
Often elevated in allergic individuals
Which of the following is NOT true of monocytes?
About the same size as basophils
All of the following are true of neutrophils, except that they are
Important in coagulation
The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the
White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are
_______ are large phagocytic white cells that spend most of their time outside the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells.
White blood cells that are increased in allergic individuals are the
The most numerous WBC's in a differential count of a healthy individual are
Which of these descriptions best matches the term lymphocytes?
Defends against specific pathogens or toxins
The most abundant white blood cells are
Which of the following is NOT true of neutrophils?
Less abundant than lymphocytes
During a bacterial infection you would expect to see increased numbers of
The pus associated with infected wounds contains
Dead neutrophils, cellular debris, and tissue fluids
Red blood cells production is regulated by the hormone
Which of these descriptions best matches the term colony stimulating factors?
Hormone that regulates blood cell formation
The process of lymphopoiesis goes on in all of the following organs, except?
Granulocytes form in
Red bone marrow
In adults, the only site of red blood cell productions, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the
Red bone marrow
Erythropoiesis is stimulates when
Oxygen levels in the blood decrease and blood flows to the kidney declines.
Platelets are pinched off from giant multinucleated cells in the bone marrow called?
An obstruction in blood flow to the kidneys would ultimately result in
The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except
During periods of fasting
When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect
A drop in oxygen levels, The release of erythropoietion, and A rise in hemocrit
Platelets functions in all of the following, except
Dissolving a formed clot
_______ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzyme
The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by the
Release of tissue factor (Factor III) by damaged endothelium
The intrinsic pathway of coagulation is active by the
Activation of proenzymes exposed by collagen
The common pathway of coagulation begins with the
Conversion of Factor X to prothrombinase
The process of fibrinolysis
The enzyme that can digest fibrin and dissolve a clot is
Tissue factor (Factor III) is a factor in the _______ pathway
Platelet factor (PE-3) is a factor in the _____ pathway
Which of these descriptions best matches the term platelets?
Adhere to collagen beneath endothelium
Some rat poisons contain a toxin that blocks the liver's ability to utilize vitamin K. Animals that consume this poison would die of
A substance that activates plasminogen might be useful to
Cause clot dissolution to proceed faster
How would removal of calcium ions from a blood sample affect coagulation
The coagulation pathway would be lacking a required cofactor at many steps and coagulation would be prevented.
Platelets are stored as a reserve in case of hemorrhage in
The spleen and other vascular organs
Which of the following vitamins in needed for the formation of clotting factors?
________ is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced.
Whole blood for testing in a clinical laboratory is usually collected from
A superficial vein
Eileen is a strict vegan and therefore eats no animal products. She develops an anemia that her doctor this is caused by a nutritional deficiency. Which of the following is the likeliest candidate?
Vitamin B12 deficiency
The disease sickle cell anemia is an example of what can happen if
A gene for an adult hemoglobin is abnormal
A cancer of the white blood cells is called
Pernicious anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor is specifically treated by
Injections of vitamin B12
The muscular layer of a blood vessel is the
Compared to arteries, veins
Have thinner walls
Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the heart back to the heart in the cardiovascular flow circuit.
4. Elastic arteries
5. Medium veins
6. Large veins
7. Muscular arteries
4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6
The layer between the tunica media and the tunica externa in a large artery is the
External elastic membrance
Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?
Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?
The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called
In large arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the
Internal elastic membrane
Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?
The common iliac artery is an example of which type of artery?
The brachial and femoral arteries are examples of which type of artery?
The inferior vena cava is classified as a
Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?
The layer of the arteriole wall that can produce vasoconstriction is the
Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is
The left subclavian artery
Elastic fibers in the walls of which vessels are stretched as the heart beats?
Capillaries that have a complete lining are called
Capillaries with a perforated lining are called
Blood flows through a capillary is controlled by the
After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the
The thoroughfare channel ends at the
RBC's move single file through this structure
Metabolites exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?
Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except
Pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of venous valves?
Channeling blood away from the heart
These vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply.
Systemic venous system
Venoconstriction reduces the diameter of which vessel?
Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the
Pulmonary veins carry blood to the
Which of the following breaks the rule that arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart?
Branches off the aortic arch include the
Brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery, and the left common carotid artery
Major branches of the right subclavian artery include the _____ artery.
After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the _____artery?
After entering the arm, the axillary artery becomes the ______artery?
The brachial artery branches to form the radial and ______arteries.
The vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is the
Superior vena cava
Veins of the upper arm include the _______veins.
Basilic, Cephalic, Brachial
Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm?
The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ______vein.
At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the _____vein.
The vein that is formed from the fusion of the subclavian with the internal and external jugulars in the ______vein.
The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins from the
Superior vena cava
Near the carotid sinus,
The common carotid divides into an internal and an external branch.
The two vertebral arteries fuse to form a large artery, the
The internal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis called the
Cerebral arterial circle
Each of the following arteries is a component of the cerebral arterial circle, except the
An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the _____artery,
Blood from the brain returns to the heart through the _____vein.
Veins of the brain empty into
The superior sagittal sinus collects blood from the
The ______ divides the aorta into the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta.
Branches of the thoracic aorta include all of the following, except the ______ arteries.
The two common iliac veins form the
Inferior vena cava
Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the
Hepatic portal vein
Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ______arteries.
The external iliac artery becomes the _____artery as it enters the lower limbs.
At the knee, the femoral artery becomes the ______artery.
Branches of the popliteal artery include the
Which of these contributes to the formation of the popliteal vein?
Anterior and posterior tibial and fibular
Blood from capillaries on the superior surface of the foot drains into
Dorsal venous arch
Blood from the venous arches is drained by the _____ vein.
At the knee, the small saphenous and popliteal veins unite to form the ______vein.
When the popliteal veins reaches the popliteal fossa, it becomes the ______vein.
The _______vein is formed by the fusion of the greater saphenous vein, femoral vein, and the deep femoral vein.
After blood is fractionated, its components are ______for the purpose of analysis.
Blood is approximately ______percent formed elements by volume.
The normal pH of blood is
Slightly alkaline (7.4)
_______is responsible for the RBC's ability to transport oxygen and CO2.
The ______is a procedure that is used to determine the number of each of the various types of white blood cells.
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a kidney-derived hormone called ______.
Hormones called ______are involved in regulation of white blood cell populations.
A fibrin network that contains trapped blood cells and platelets is called
The _____are small blood vessels that drain capillary beds.
______are multiple arteries joined in order to serve a single capillary network.
Capillaries are continuous or _____.
The blood vessel that carries blood to the arm and shoulder is the _____.
The blood vessel that supplies blood to the head and neck is the _____.
Common carotid artery
The vein in the arm commonly sampled for blood by venipuncture is the ______.
Median cubital vein
The _____ vein is a superficial vein that ascends along the ulnar side of the forearm.
The _____vein is a superficial vein that ascends along the radial side of the forearm.
The blood vessel that supplies blood to the cerebral arterial circle from the posterior is the ______.
The bronchial arteries branch from the ____ to supply the lung airways,
The blood vessel that supplies blood to the liver, stomach, and spleen is the ____.
Celiac artery (celiac truck)
The blood vessel that supplies blood to the pancreas, the small intestine, and most of the large intestine is the .
Superior mesenteric artery
The _____ artery is the kidney's sole blood supply.
The blood vessel that supplies venous blood to the liver is the
Hepatic portal vein
The lower part of the large intestine including the rectum receives blood from the
Inferior mesenteric artery
The _____ receives all the venous blood from the kidney's.
Blood is drained from the liver by the
The _______ collects blood from the entire small intestine and two-thirds of the large intestine.
Superior mesenteric vein
The larger of the two branches of the common iliac artery is the
External iliac artery
The branch of the common iliac artery that enters the pelvic cavity is the
Internal iliac artery
Arteries that supply the plantar portion of the foot branch from the posterior ______ artery
Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of?
Cardiac muscle cells
Which of the following descriptions matches the term Near the left fifth intercostal space?
Apex of heart
Intercalated discs serve to transfer _______ from cell to cell.
Ionic currents, Action potentials, and the force of contraction
In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and the trachea called the?
The visceral pericardium is the same as the ?
The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is known as?
The earlike extension of the atrium is the
The coronary sulcus is a groove that
Marks the border between the atria and ventricles
There are ______ pulmonary veins.
The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus contain
Fat, Arteries, and Veins
Blood is supplied to the myocardium by
The coronary arteries
The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the ______arteries.
The marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the
Right coronary artery
The circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular artery are branches of the
Left coronary artery
The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the
The ______delivers blood to the mycoardium
Right and Left coronary artery
Blood is supplied to the left atrium by the
Left coronary artery
Coronary veins empty into the
Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the
Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the
The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow
In one direction only
Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the
The cusps of atrioventricular valves attach directly to
The right ventricle pumps blood to the
Right and Left lungs
The left ventricle pumps blood to the
The right atrium receives blood from the
Coronary sinus, Superior vena cava, and Inferior vena cava
Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the _____valve.
As blood leaves the right ventricle it passes through the ______and then into the pulmonary trunk.
The function of the atrium is to
Collect blood and pump blood to the ventricle
Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has all the following characteristics, except
Pumps a greater volume
The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart.
1. right atrium
2. left atrium
3. right ventricle
4. left ventricle
5. venae cavae
7. pulmonary trunk
8. pulmonary veins
What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation?
5)Venae cavae, 1)Right atrium, 3)Right ventricle, 7)Pulmonary trunk, 8)Pulmonary veins, 2)Left atrium, 4)Left ventricle, and 6)Aorta
The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the
The pulmonary veins carry blood to the
The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right because
The left ventricle does more work than then the right ventricle, The left ventricle pumps against greater resistance than the right ventricle, and The left ventricle produces a higher pressure than the right
The ______ ventricle has a greater workload that the ________.
Left; Right ventricle
Contractions of the papillary muscles
Prevent the atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria,
The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backward flow into the
The bicuspid or mitral valve is located
Between the left atrium and left ventricle
The ______valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium.
Rupture of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle may result in
Mitral regurgitation, Mitral valve prolapse, Bicuspid regurgitation, and Bicuspid prolapse
When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves?
If a patient's tricuspid valve was leaking during systole, what would happen?
Regurgitation into the left atrium
David suffers from a prolapsed mitral valve. This condition would cause?
Increased effort by the left ventricle and regurgitation
Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ______percent of deaths in the United States?
Arteriosclerosis can lead to
Hypertension, Stroke, and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
The first heart sound is heard when the?
AV valves closes
During the isovolumetric contraction phase of ventricular systole, the
Atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves are closed
The first heart sound (Lubb)
Is associated with closing of the mitral valve
The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the
Ventricular ejection of ventricular systole
Which of the following is greater during left ventricular systole?
The peak pressure in the ventricle
The mitral valve closes
When left ventricular pressure exceeds left atrial pressure, At the beginning of ventricular systole, and At the same time at the tricuspid valve.
When the left ventricle contacts, the distance from the apex to the base
When the left ventricle contracts, the diameter if the ventricular chamber
_______is to contraction as ______is to relaxation.
Systole; Diastole OR Ejection; Filling
During ventricular systole, the
AV valve are closed
The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in the
The following are structural components of the conducting system of the heart.
1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches
The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is
4)SA Node, 3)AV Node, 2)AV Bundle, 5)Bundle Branches, and 1)Purkinje Fibers
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the
The heart pumps approximately ________milliliters of blood each minute.
Pacemaker cells in the SA node
Generate action potentials that spread to the myocardium
The AV node delivers the stimulus to the AV Bundle, located within the interventricular septum.
Both parts of the statement are true.
If the pacemaker cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions, the
Both heart rate will increase and membrane will hyperpolarize
If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked
The ventricles will beat more slowly
In cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of
Increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.
The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to
Calcium channels remaining open.
In cardiac muscle
Calcium ions enter the cell through slow ion channels
Tetanic muscle contractions don't occur in a normal cardiac muscle because
The refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes
As a result of the long refractory period in the cardiac action potential, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit
Pacemaker cells isolated from the SA node generate action potentials at ________ beats per minute.
The heart is innervated by ________ nerves.
Both parasympathetic and sympathetic
________ is to slow heart rate as ________ is to fast heart rate.
Which of the following would increase heart rate?
Increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node, Decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers, Increased levels of norepinephrine and/or epinephrine, and Faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential
Drugs that block the beta-one adrenergic receptors will
Decrease heart rate
The heart beats approximately ________ times each day.
At a heart rate of 60 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts
Acetylcholine slows the heart because it
Opens potassium ion channels in SA node cells and causes the pacemaker potential to depolarize more slowly.
Activation of which kind of receptor causes heart rate to increase?
Heart rate is controlled by neurons of the cardiovascular center located in the
The cardioacceleratory center activates sympathetic neurons and the cardioinhibitory center controls parasympathetic neurons.
Both parts of the statement are true and relate to brainstem control of heart rate.
Stroke volume depends on
End-diastolic volume, The contractility of the ventricles, and The pressure required to pump blood into the aorta
Drugs known as calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine can be used to
Decrease the force of cardiac contractions
Which of the following would be greater?
The end-diastolic volume when the heart rate is 60 beats/minute
Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output, except
Increased parasympathetic stimulation.
Cardiac output can be increased by all of the following except one. Choose the exception.
Decreasing ejection fraction
Cardiac output is increased by
More sympathetic stimulation, Increased end-diastolic volume, and Increased stroke volume
What effect would compressing the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm have on cardiac function?
Sympathetic stimulation of the heart would increase.
Which of these would cause stroke volume to increase?
Both when venous return is increased and when diastolic blood pressure is decreased
The P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from
Depolarization of the atria
Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the
The T wave on an ECG tracing represents
Analysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the following except the
During the cardiac cycle, the
Both QRS complex of the ECG precedes the increase in ventricular pressure and first heart sound coincides with the QRS complex of the ECG.
During the T wave of the electrocardiogram, the ventricles are
Both repolarizing and relaxing
Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the ECG's
Abnormally slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the _______in an ECG tracing,
If there is a complex block between the SA node and the AV node. how would the ECG be affected?
The rate of the P waves will be faster than the rate of the QRS complexes
Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue, except
Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the
Osmolarity of interstitial fluids
Averaged over a few heartbeats, venous return is ______cardiac output.
Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?
Blood viscosity, Vessel diameter, Turbulence, and Vascular resistance
The main control of peripheral resistance by the vasomotor centers occurs in the
Turbulent blood flow occurs
When there are irregularities in the vessel wall, At high flow rates, and When there are sudden changes in vessel diameter
Which of the following would have the greater effect on vascular resistance?
A vessel 10 microns in diameter
In which of the following would the blood flow be highest?
A vessel 1.0 cm in diameter and 2 meters long
Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance, except
Blood pressure is highest here
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the _____pressure.
As blood travels from arteries to veins
If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be
Blood pressure is lowest in the
If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be _____mm Hg.
Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in
Materials can move across capillary walls by
Diffusion, Filtration, and Reabsorption
The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the
Concentration of plasma proteins
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space?
The net filtration pressure is usually zero.
The vascular pressure that declines from roughly 35mm Hg to about 18mm Hg is the
Capillary hydrostatic pressure
Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the
Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries?
Decreased plasma albumen, Increased blood hydrostatic pressure, and Decreased tissue hydrostatic pressure
The continual movement of fluid through the interstitial spaces produced by capillary filtration serves which of the following functions?
Accelerates the distribution of nutrients and hormones, Assists the transport of insoluble substances that cannot enter the capillaries, Helps carry toxins and bacteria to cells of the immune system, and Flushed hormones and wastes from the interstitial spaces.
Edema is favored when
The plasma concentration of protein is reduced, Endothelial permeability goes up, and Capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated
Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors results in
Increased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system
Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased
When will the blood pressure be greater?
When the peripheral vessels constricts
An increase in the rate of action potentials from baroreceptors will lead to
Both decrease in heart rate and decrease in blood pressure
When renin is released from the kidney
Angiotensin I is activated
Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except
Increased levels of ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide)
The hormone the produces cardiovascular effects similar to activation of the sympathetic nervous system is
Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure, except
Release of renin
Which of the following are characteristics of cardiovascular regulation?
Blood flow through tissues meets the demand for oxygen, Blood flow changes to match tissue responses, Changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure, and Blood flow through tissues meet demand for nutrients
Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased
Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
In comparing a trained athlete to a non-athlete, which of these comparisons is FALSE?
Both heart weigh about the same
Which of the following would you expect to have the lowest resting heart rate?
A trained athlete
Vasodilation occurs at the active skeletal muscles, Venous return increases, and Both cardiac output and stroke volume increases
Which of the following changes doesn't occur during exercise compared to rest?
Skin blood flow is lower
In response to hemorrhage, there is
Peripheral vasoconstriction, Increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart, and Mobilization of the venous reserve
Venoconstriction _______the amount of blood within the venous system, which _______the volume in the arterial and capillary systems.
Homeostatic mechanisms in response to blood loss include all of the following, except
Inhibition of EPO secretion.
To defend blood volume against dehydration, the body
Accelerates reabsorption of water at the kidneys, Experiences a recall of interstitial fluids, Experiences an increase in the blood colloidal osmotic pressure, and Increases water intake.
ADH and aldosterone secretion are part of the body's long-term compensation for
A serious hemorrhage
After losing 25% of blood volume in a motorcycle accident, which of the following compensatory responses would occur?
Increased heart rate, Increase of contractility, Vasoconstriction of the body wall and Venoconstriction of skin vessels
Paul has a horrible chainsaw accident and cuts several major blood vessels in his head and neck. As a result of this injury, you would expect to observe all of the following, except
An increase in cardiac output
The superior portion of the heart where major blood vessels enter and exit is the ______
The inferior point of the heart is called the ______
Most of the mass of the heart lies to the _______of the midline
The left border of the heart is formed by the ______
Left ventricle and a small portion of the left atrium
The wall of the _____rests on the diaphragm.
The muscle layer of the heart is the _______
The ______lines the chambers of the heart, covers the heart valves, and is continuous with the endothelium.
The heart is suspended within the ____in the mediastinum
An equivalent term for epicardium is
The space between the pleural cavities is called the
The _____separates the two ventricles
The ______separates the two atria
Muscular ridges on the inner surface of the ventricles are called ________.
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called ________.
The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called ________.
As the heart rate slows, ________ gets longer.
The ________ valve opens when left ventricular pressure exceeds aortic blood pressure.
A slower-than-normal heart rate is called ________.
A faster-than-normal heart rate is called ________.
The ________ is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the beginning of systole.
The ________ is the amount of blood in a ventricle after it has contracted and before it begins to refill.
The amount of blood returning to the heart is the ________.
The process of decrease in vessel diameter that occurs due to smooth muscle contraction is called ________.
________ refers to all the factors that resist blood flow in the entire circulatory system.
Total peripheral resistance
________ are the only blood vessels whose walls are thin enough to permit blood-tissue exchange.
________ is the regulation of blood flow by local mechanisms within a capillary bed.