Ch. 19-21 Blood, Vessels & Heart Flashcards


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1

Which is NOT a major function of the blood?

Production of oxygen

2

The normal average temperature of blood is around?

100.4

3

The normal pH range for blood is?

7.35-7.45

4

Which of the following is NOT a component of blood?

Carbon dioxide

5

The hematocrit is composed of?

RBC

6

How much of blood plasma is water (approximately)?

91%

7

Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in disease resistance?

Globulins

8

Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in blood clotting?

Fibrinogens

9

A hemocrit measures

Percentage of RBC in packed blood

10

The process by which formed elements of the blood develop is called?

Hemopoiesis

11

A megakaryoblast will develop into?

Platelet

12

During hemopoiesis, some of the myeloid stem cells differentiate into?

Progenitor cells

13

This hormone stimulates proliferation of RBC in red bone marrow?

EPO

14

How many hemoglobin molecules are in each RBC?

280 million

15

Ferritin is used to?

Store iron

16

A RBC's function is?

Gas transport

17

A red blood cell without a nucleus is called a?

Reticulocyte

18

Which of the following reduces blood loss?

Platelet

19

Which of the following is a phagocyte?

Monocytes

20

Which of the following promotes inflammation?

Basophil

21

Which of the following destroys antigen-antibody complexes?

Eosinophil

22

Which of the following destroys immune responses?

Eosinophil

23

Which of the following is NOT an agranular leukocyte?

Basophil

24

The process of a white blood cell squeezing between cells to exit the blood vessel is called?

Emigration

25

Which of the following do mast cells NOT release?

Nitric oxide

26

This hormone causes the development of megakaryoblasts

Thrombopoietin

27

Which methods provide hemostasis?

Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, and clotting

28

Once this is formed, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway are identical

Prothrombinase

29

Which of the following clotting factors has the most to do with strengthening and stabilizing a blood clot?

Factor XIII

30

Considering Rh blood types, which of the below situations would result in maternal antibodies attacking the fetus?

Mom is Rh positive and fetus is Rh positive

31

Which of the following opposes the action of thromboxane A2?

Prostacyclin

32

Which of the following is an anticoagulant?

Heparin

33

This is the mass of tissue from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs?

Mediastinum

34

This is the layer that protects the heart.

Epicardium

35

To which side of the body is the apex pointed?

To the left

36

Which of the following consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue?

Fibrous pericardium

37

This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart?

Pericardial (serous) fluid

38

This consists of mesothelium and connective tissue

Epicardium

39

Which layer consists of cardiac muscle tissue?

Myocardium

40

This is used to increase the capacity of the atrium

Auricle

41

This marks the boundary between the ventricles

Anterior and posterior intercentricular sulcus

42

These extend into the auricle

Pectinate muscles

43

Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

44

What types of tissue comprise the valves of the heart?

Dense irregular connective tissue

45

From the left ventricle, where does blood pass?

Aortic semilunar valve

46

In a fetus, this structure temporarily shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.

Ductus arteriosus

47

As each ventricle contracts where does blood move?

Into an artery

48

As each atrium contracts where does blood move?

Through an atrioventricular valve

49

Which of the below valves prevents blood from flowing back from the lungs?

Pulmonary valve

50

In this disorder the aortic valve is narrowed?

Aortic stenosis

51

This heart structure carries deoxygenated blood.

Right atrium and ventricle

52

This vessel distributes oxygenated blood to the myocardium

Coronary artery

53

Cardiac muscle fibers electrically connect to neighboring fibers by

Gap junctions

54

Which of the following contains the largest amount of mitochondria?

Cardiac muscle

55

This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.

Conduction system

56

This is a the correct sequence of structures that allows the normal sequence of excitation to progress through the heart.

SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers

57

By comparison, cardiac muscle cells have ______ contraction plateau time than skeletal muscle cells.

A longer

58

This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.

Cardiac output

59

This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction occurs and blood pressure rises.

Systole

60

Which of these periods represents greatest cardiac output?

Ventricular systole

61

The second heart sound represents which of the below events?

Semilunar valves closing

62

This part of the heart can initiate a contraction and can set a constant heart rate of about 100 beats per minute.

Sinoatrial valve

63

Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.

Vagus nerve

64

Which of the below reduces heart rate.

Increased potassium levels

65

This part of the brain regulates heart rate,

Medulla oblongata

66

This electrical event represents repolarization of the ventricle.

T wave

67

Which of the below factors would increase Stroke volume?

Increased preload, decreased afterload, and increased contractility

68

This electrical event triggers contraction of the atria.

P wave

69

What do the following have in common: superficial temporal artery, brachial artery, and dorsal artery of the foot?

They are all pulse points

70

Which of the following is NOT a response to hypovolemic shock?

Release of vasoconstrictors

71

All the veins of the systemic circulation drain into the

Superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus

72

The pulmonary trunk divides into

Right and left pulmonary arteries

73

In fetal circulation, what is the opening between the right and left atria called?

Foramen ovale

74

Which of the below vessels is a pulse point at the wrist?

Radial artery

75

Which of the below vessels supplies blood to the intestines?

Mesenteric artery

76

Which of the below vessels supplies blood to the kidney?

Renal artery

77

Which of the below vessels drains blood from the lower leg?

Tibial vein

78

Which of the below vessels drains blood from the head and neck?

Jugular vein

79

Which of the below vessels drains blood from the lower body to the right atrium?

Inferior vena cava

80

After birth when the umbilical cord is cut, what do the umbilical arteries fill with?

Connective tissue

81

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

Transport of nutrients and wastes, transport of body heat, transport of gases, and defense against toxins and pathogens

82

Which of the following statements about blood is false?

Normal pH is 6.8-7.0

83

Formed elements make up about what percentage of blood?

45%

84

The combination of plasma and formed elements is called

whole blood

85

The percent fraction of formed element relative to whole blood is the

Hematocrit

86

A typical adult hematocrit is around?

45

87

Platelets are?

Cytoplasmic fragments of large cells.

88

The total volume of blood in the body of an adult male is approximately ______ liters?

5 to 6

89

Which organ secretes most of the plasma proteins?

Liver

90

The chief differences between plasma and interstitial fluid involves the

Concentration of proteins

91

The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are

Albumins

92

Plasma proteins essential in body defense are the

Immunoglobulins

93

A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is

Fibrinogen

94

The most abundant component of plasma is

Water

95

A hematocrit provides information on

Formed elements abundance

96

Which of the following is NOT a component of plasma?

Platelets

97

Which of these is NOT one of the formed elements of blood?

Antibodies

98

Plasma composes about _____ percent of whole blood, and water composes ______ percent of the plasma volume.

55, and 92

99

Which plasma protein is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure of plasma?

Albumin

100

Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by

The liver

101

Plasma is closest in composition to

Interstitial fluid

102

You are caring for a female adult patient who weighs 40 kg (90lbs). Assuming no loss of blood, what would her approximate blood volume be?

3.8L

103

Each of the following is a characteristic of whole blood, except a

Viscosity about the same as water.

104

Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false?

Red blood cells are about 18 ┬Ám in diameter.

105

The function of red blood cells is to?

Carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells.

106

More than 95% of the protein in a red blood cell is?

Hemoglobin

107

The function of hemoglobin is to?

Carry oxygen

108

Each hemoglobin molecule contains

Four iron atoms

109

Each heme ring in hemoglobin encloses an atom of

Iron

110

Mary is tested for the amount of hemoglobin in her blood. The test results indicate that her hemoglobin level is 16 g/dL of blood. This value indicates that?

Her hemoglobin level is normal.

111

All the circulating red blood cells originate in the

Red bone marrow

112

The average lifespan of a red blood cell is

4 months

113

Aged and damaged erythrocytes are broken down by macrophages in the

Spleen, Liver, and Bone marrow

114

The waste product bilirubin is produced from

Heme molecules lacking iron

115

Most of the iron that is removed from degraded hemoglobin is

Recycled to the red bone marrow

116

In adults, erythropoiesis exclusively takes place in

Red bone marrow

117

The process of red blood cell production is called

Erythropoiesis

118

The developmental stage at which erythrocytes enter the circulation is as

Reticulocytes

119

________ are immature erythrocytes that are present in the circulation.

Reticulocytes

120

Which of these proteins functions to store or transport oxygen?

Hemoglobin

121

The yellow color that is visible in the eyes and skin in jaundice results from

Excessive amounts of bilirubin in the plasma, extensive breakdown of RBCs, and destruction of hemoglobin

122

After donation 0.5 liters of blood, one would expect?

An increased reticulocyte count

123

If bile ducts are blocked,

More bilirubin appears in the plasma, and bilirubin appears in the skin and eyes

124

Which of the following would you expect to see in increased numbers in a peripheral blood sample after donating a unit of blood?

Reticulocytes

125

In which of the following situations would you expect the blood level of bilirubin to be elevated?

A person suffering from hemolysis and an alcoholic with a damaged liver.

126

A person's blood type is determined largely by the

Presence of specific glycoproteins on the cell membrane

127

A person with Type A blood has?

Antigen A on the RBCs and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.

128

People with type AB blood are considered the "universal recipient" for transfusions because

Their blood lacks A or B antibodies

129

Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture would in his finger and mixes it with various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A sera but not with the anti-B or anti-D sera. This means?

Bill could receive type A-negative blood in a transfusion, Bill could donate blood to an individual with type AB blood, Bill is Rh negative, and Bill's plasma contains B antibodies

130

Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if

An Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus

131

Which of the following is true of basophils?

Constitute about 1% of WBCs, promotes inflammation, granules contain histamine, and contains dense blue stained granules in the Wright stain.

132

Which of these descriptions best match the term eosinophils?

Often elevated in allergic individuals

133

Which of the following is NOT true of monocytes?

About the same size as basophils

134

All of the following are true of neutrophils, except that they are

Important in coagulation

135

The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the

Neutrophils

136

White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are

Basophils

137

_______ are large phagocytic white cells that spend most of their time outside the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells.

Monocytes

138

White blood cells that are increased in allergic individuals are the

Eosinophils

139

The most numerous WBC's in a differential count of a healthy individual are

Neutrophils

140

Which of these descriptions best matches the term lymphocytes?

Defends against specific pathogens or toxins

141

The most abundant white blood cells are

Neutrophils

142

Which of the following is NOT true of neutrophils?

Less abundant than lymphocytes

143

During a bacterial infection you would expect to see increased numbers of

Neutrophils

144

The pus associated with infected wounds contains

Dead neutrophils, cellular debris, and tissue fluids

145

Red blood cells production is regulated by the hormone

Erythropoietin

146

Which of these descriptions best matches the term colony stimulating factors?

Hormone that regulates blood cell formation

147

The process of lymphopoiesis goes on in all of the following organs, except?

The kidney

148

Granulocytes form in

Red bone marrow

149

In adults, the only site of red blood cell productions, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the

Red bone marrow

150

Erythropoiesis is stimulates when

Oxygen levels in the blood decrease and blood flows to the kidney declines.

151

Platelets are pinched off from giant multinucleated cells in the bone marrow called?

Megakaryocytes

152

An obstruction in blood flow to the kidneys would ultimately result in

Increased erythropoiesis

153

The level of erythropoietin in the blood would rise due to all of the following, except

During periods of fasting

154

When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect

A drop in oxygen levels, The release of erythropoietion, and A rise in hemocrit

155

Platelets functions in all of the following, except

Dissolving a formed clot

156

_______ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Coagulation

157

The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzyme

Thrombin

158

The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by the

Release of tissue factor (Factor III) by damaged endothelium

159

The intrinsic pathway of coagulation is active by the

Activation of proenzymes exposed by collagen

160

The common pathway of coagulation begins with the

Conversion of Factor X to prothrombinase

161

The process of fibrinolysis

Dissolves clots

162

The enzyme that can digest fibrin and dissolve a clot is

Plasmin

163

Tissue factor (Factor III) is a factor in the _______ pathway

Extrinsic

164

Platelet factor (PE-3) is a factor in the _____ pathway

Intrinsic

165

Which of these descriptions best matches the term platelets?

Adhere to collagen beneath endothelium

166

Some rat poisons contain a toxin that blocks the liver's ability to utilize vitamin K. Animals that consume this poison would die of

Hemorrhage

167

A substance that activates plasminogen might be useful to

Cause clot dissolution to proceed faster

168

How would removal of calcium ions from a blood sample affect coagulation

The coagulation pathway would be lacking a required cofactor at many steps and coagulation would be prevented.

169

Platelets are stored as a reserve in case of hemorrhage in

The spleen and other vascular organs

170

Which of the following vitamins in needed for the formation of clotting factors?

Vitamin K

171

________ is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced.

Anemia

172

Whole blood for testing in a clinical laboratory is usually collected from

A superficial vein

173

Eileen is a strict vegan and therefore eats no animal products. She develops an anemia that her doctor this is caused by a nutritional deficiency. Which of the following is the likeliest candidate?

Vitamin B12 deficiency

174

The disease sickle cell anemia is an example of what can happen if

A gene for an adult hemoglobin is abnormal

175

A cancer of the white blood cells is called

Leukemia

176

Pernicious anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor is specifically treated by

Injections of vitamin B12

177

The muscular layer of a blood vessel is the

Tunica media

178

Compared to arteries, veins

Have thinner walls

179

Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the heart back to the heart in the cardiovascular flow circuit.

1.Venules

2. Arterioles

3. Capillaries

4. Elastic arteries

5. Medium veins

6. Large veins

7. Muscular arteries

4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

180

The layer between the tunica media and the tunica externa in a large artery is the

External elastic membrance

181

Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?

Tunica externa

182

Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?

Tunica media

183

The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called

Veins

184

In large arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the

Internal elastic membrane

185

Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?

Tunica intima

186

The common iliac artery is an example of which type of artery?

Elastic

187

The brachial and femoral arteries are examples of which type of artery?

Muscular

188

The inferior vena cava is classified as a

Large vein

189

Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?

Venules

190

The layer of the arteriole wall that can produce vasoconstriction is the

Tunica media

191

Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is

The left subclavian artery

192

Elastic fibers in the walls of which vessels are stretched as the heart beats?

Arteries

193

Capillaries that have a complete lining are called

Continuous capillaries

194

Capillaries with a perforated lining are called

Fenestrated capillaries

195

Blood flows through a capillary is controlled by the

Precapillary sphincter

196

After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the

Venules

197

The thoroughfare channel ends at the

Venule

198

RBC's move single file through this structure

Capillary

199

Metabolites exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?

Capillary

200

Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except

Pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein

201

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of venous valves?

Channeling blood away from the heart

202

These vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply.

Systemic venous system

203

Venoconstriction reduces the diameter of which vessel?

Vein

204

Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the

Lungs

205

Pulmonary veins carry blood to the

Left atrium

206

Which of the following breaks the rule that arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart?

Pulmonary arteries

207

Branches off the aortic arch include the

Brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery, and the left common carotid artery

208

Major branches of the right subclavian artery include the _____ artery.

Internal thoracic

209

After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the _____artery?

Axillary

210

After entering the arm, the axillary artery becomes the ______artery?

Brachial

211

The brachial artery branches to form the radial and ______arteries.

Ulnar

212

The vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is the

Superior vena cava

213

Veins of the upper arm include the _______veins.

Basilic, Cephalic, Brachial

214

Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm?

Radial

215

The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ______vein.

Brachial

216

At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the _____vein.

Subclavian

217

The vein that is formed from the fusion of the subclavian with the internal and external jugulars in the ______vein.

Brachiocephalic

218

The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins from the

Superior vena cava

219

Near the carotid sinus,

The common carotid divides into an internal and an external branch.

220

The two vertebral arteries fuse to form a large artery, the

Basilar artery

221

The internal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis called the

Cerebral arterial circle

222

Each of the following arteries is a component of the cerebral arterial circle, except the

Basilar artery

223

An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the _____artery,

Internal carotid

224

Blood from the brain returns to the heart through the _____vein.

Internal jugular

225

Veins of the brain empty into

Dural sinuses.

226

The superior sagittal sinus collects blood from the

Brain

227

The ______ divides the aorta into the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta.

Diaphragm

228

Branches of the thoracic aorta include all of the following, except the ______ arteries.

Basilar

229

The two common iliac veins form the

Inferior vena cava

230

Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the

Hepatic portal vein

231

Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ______arteries.

Common iliac

232

The external iliac artery becomes the _____artery as it enters the lower limbs.

Femoral

233

At the knee, the femoral artery becomes the ______artery.

Popliteal

234

Branches of the popliteal artery include the

Anterior tibial

235

Which of these contributes to the formation of the popliteal vein?

Anterior and posterior tibial and fibular

236

Blood from capillaries on the superior surface of the foot drains into

Dorsal venous arch

237

Blood from the venous arches is drained by the _____ vein.

Small saphenous.

238

At the knee, the small saphenous and popliteal veins unite to form the ______vein.

Femoral

239

When the popliteal veins reaches the popliteal fossa, it becomes the ______vein.

Femoral

240

The _______vein is formed by the fusion of the greater saphenous vein, femoral vein, and the deep femoral vein.

External iliac

241

After blood is fractionated, its components are ______for the purpose of analysis.

Separated

242

Blood is approximately ______percent formed elements by volume.

37-54

243

The normal pH of blood is

Slightly alkaline (7.4)

244

_______is responsible for the RBC's ability to transport oxygen and CO2.

Hemoglobin

245

The ______is a procedure that is used to determine the number of each of the various types of white blood cells.

Differential count

246

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a kidney-derived hormone called ______.

Erythropoietin (EPO)

247

Hormones called ______are involved in regulation of white blood cell populations.

Colony-stimulating factors

248

A fibrin network that contains trapped blood cells and platelets is called

Blood clot

249

The _____are small blood vessels that drain capillary beds.

Venules

250

______are multiple arteries joined in order to serve a single capillary network.

Collateral arteries

251

Capillaries are continuous or _____.

Fenestrated

252

The blood vessel that carries blood to the arm and shoulder is the _____.

Subclavian artery

253

The blood vessel that supplies blood to the head and neck is the _____.

Common carotid artery

254

The vein in the arm commonly sampled for blood by venipuncture is the ______.

Median cubital vein

255

The _____ vein is a superficial vein that ascends along the ulnar side of the forearm.

Basilic

256

The _____vein is a superficial vein that ascends along the radial side of the forearm.

Cephalic

257

The blood vessel that supplies blood to the cerebral arterial circle from the posterior is the ______.

Basilar artery

258

The bronchial arteries branch from the ____ to supply the lung airways,

Thoracic aorta

259

The blood vessel that supplies blood to the liver, stomach, and spleen is the ____.

Celiac artery (celiac truck)

260

The blood vessel that supplies blood to the pancreas, the small intestine, and most of the large intestine is the .

Superior mesenteric artery

261

The _____ artery is the kidney's sole blood supply.

Renal

262

The blood vessel that supplies venous blood to the liver is the

Hepatic portal vein

263

The lower part of the large intestine including the rectum receives blood from the

Inferior mesenteric artery

264

The _____ receives all the venous blood from the kidney's.

Renal veins

265

Blood is drained from the liver by the

Hepatic vein

266

The _______ collects blood from the entire small intestine and two-thirds of the large intestine.

Superior mesenteric vein

267

The larger of the two branches of the common iliac artery is the

External iliac artery

268

The branch of the common iliac artery that enters the pelvic cavity is the

Internal iliac artery

269

Arteries that supply the plantar portion of the foot branch from the posterior ______ artery

Tibial

270

Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of?

Cardiac muscle cells

271

Which of the following descriptions matches the term Near the left fifth intercostal space?

Apex of heart

272

Intercalated discs serve to transfer _______ from cell to cell.

Ionic currents, Action potentials, and the force of contraction

273

In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and the trachea called the?

Mediastinum

274

The visceral pericardium is the same as the ?

Epicardium

275

The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is known as?

Cardiac tamponade

276

The earlike extension of the atrium is the

Auricle

277

The coronary sulcus is a groove that

Marks the border between the atria and ventricles

278

There are ______ pulmonary veins.

4

279

The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus contain

Fat, Arteries, and Veins

280

Blood is supplied to the myocardium by

The coronary arteries

281

The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the ______arteries.

Coronary

282

The marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the

Right coronary artery

283

The circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular artery are branches of the

Left coronary artery

284

The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the

Coronary sinus

285

The ______delivers blood to the mycoardium

Right and Left coronary artery

286

Blood is supplied to the left atrium by the

Left coronary artery

287

Coronary veins empty into the

Right atrium

288

Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the

Right atrium

289

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the

Left atrium

290

The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow

In one direction only

291

Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the

Pulmonary valve

292

The cusps of atrioventricular valves attach directly to

Chordae tendineae

293

The right ventricle pumps blood to the

Right and Left lungs

294

The left ventricle pumps blood to the

Aorta

295

The right atrium receives blood from the

Coronary sinus, Superior vena cava, and Inferior vena cava

296

Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the _____valve.

Tricuspid

297

As blood leaves the right ventricle it passes through the ______and then into the pulmonary trunk.

Pulmonary valve

298

The function of the atrium is to

Collect blood and pump blood to the ventricle

299

Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has all the following characteristics, except

Pumps a greater volume

300

The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart.

1. right atrium
2. left atrium
3. right ventricle
4. left ventricle
5. venae cavae
6. aorta
7. pulmonary trunk
8. pulmonary veins

What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation?

5)Venae cavae, 1)Right atrium, 3)Right ventricle, 7)Pulmonary trunk, 8)Pulmonary veins, 2)Left atrium, 4)Left ventricle, and 6)Aorta

301

The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the

Lungs

302

The pulmonary veins carry blood to the

Heart

303

The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right because

The left ventricle does more work than then the right ventricle, The left ventricle pumps against greater resistance than the right ventricle, and The left ventricle produces a higher pressure than the right

304

The ______ ventricle has a greater workload that the ________.

Left; Right ventricle

305

Contractions of the papillary muscles

Prevent the atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria,

306

The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backward flow into the

Right ventricle

307

The bicuspid or mitral valve is located

Between the left atrium and left ventricle

308

The ______valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium.

Bicuspid

309

Rupture of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle may result in

Mitral regurgitation, Mitral valve prolapse, Bicuspid regurgitation, and Bicuspid prolapse

310

When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves?

Open

311

If a patient's tricuspid valve was leaking during systole, what would happen?

Regurgitation into the left atrium

312

David suffers from a prolapsed mitral valve. This condition would cause?

Increased effort by the left ventricle and regurgitation

313

Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ______percent of deaths in the United States?

50%

314

Arteriosclerosis can lead to

Hypertension, Stroke, and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

315

The first heart sound is heard when the?

AV valves closes

316

During the isovolumetric contraction phase of ventricular systole, the

Atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves are closed

317

The first heart sound (Lubb)

Is associated with closing of the mitral valve

318

The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the

Ventricular ejection of ventricular systole

319

Which of the following is greater during left ventricular systole?

The peak pressure in the ventricle

320

The mitral valve closes

When left ventricular pressure exceeds left atrial pressure, At the beginning of ventricular systole, and At the same time at the tricuspid valve.

321

When the left ventricle contacts, the distance from the apex to the base

Decreases

322

When the left ventricle contracts, the diameter if the ventricular chamber

Decreases

323

_______is to contraction as ______is to relaxation.

Systole; Diastole OR Ejection; Filling

324

During ventricular systole, the

AV valve are closed

325

The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in the

Sinoatrial node

326

The following are structural components of the conducting system of the heart.

1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches
The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is

4)SA Node, 3)AV Node, 2)AV Bundle, 5)Bundle Branches, and 1)Purkinje Fibers

327

The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the

Stroke volume

328

The heart pumps approximately ________milliliters of blood each minute.

6,000

329

Pacemaker cells in the SA node

Generate action potentials that spread to the myocardium

330

The AV node delivers the stimulus to the AV Bundle, located within the interventricular septum.

Both parts of the statement are true.

331

If the pacemaker cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions, the

Both heart rate will increase and membrane will hyperpolarize

332

If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked

The ventricles will beat more slowly

333

In cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of

Increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.

334

The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to

Calcium channels remaining open.

335

In cardiac muscle

Calcium ions enter the cell through slow ion channels

336

Tetanic muscle contractions don't occur in a normal cardiac muscle because

The refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes

337

As a result of the long refractory period in the cardiac action potential, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit

Tetany

338

Pacemaker cells isolated from the SA node generate action potentials at ________ beats per minute.

80-100

339

The heart is innervated by ________ nerves.

Both parasympathetic and sympathetic

340

________ is to slow heart rate as ________ is to fast heart rate.

Bradycardia; Tachycardia

341

Which of the following would increase heart rate?

Increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node, Decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers, Increased levels of norepinephrine and/or epinephrine, and Faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential

342

Drugs that block the beta-one adrenergic receptors will

Decrease heart rate

343

The heart beats approximately ________ times each day.

100,000

344

At a heart rate of 60 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts

1 second

345

Acetylcholine slows the heart because it

Opens potassium ion channels in SA node cells and causes the pacemaker potential to depolarize more slowly.

346

Activation of which kind of receptor causes heart rate to increase?

Beta-one receptor

347

Heart rate is controlled by neurons of the cardiovascular center located in the

Medulla Oblongata

348

The cardioacceleratory center activates sympathetic neurons and the cardioinhibitory center controls parasympathetic neurons.

Both parts of the statement are true and relate to brainstem control of heart rate.

349

Stroke volume depends on

End-diastolic volume, The contractility of the ventricles, and The pressure required to pump blood into the aorta

350

Drugs known as calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine can be used to

Decrease the force of cardiac contractions

351

Which of the following would be greater?

The end-diastolic volume when the heart rate is 60 beats/minute

352

Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output, except

Increased parasympathetic stimulation.

353

Cardiac output can be increased by all of the following except one. Choose the exception.

Decreasing ejection fraction

354

Cardiac output is increased by

More sympathetic stimulation, Increased end-diastolic volume, and Increased stroke volume

355

What effect would compressing the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm have on cardiac function?

Sympathetic stimulation of the heart would increase.

356

Which of these would cause stroke volume to increase?

Both when venous return is increased and when diastolic blood pressure is decreased

357

The P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from

Depolarization of the atria

358

Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the

QRS complex

359

The T wave on an ECG tracing represents

Ventricular repolarization

360

Analysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the following except the

Stroke volume

361

During the cardiac cycle, the

Both QRS complex of the ECG precedes the increase in ventricular pressure and first heart sound coincides with the QRS complex of the ECG.

362

During the T wave of the electrocardiogram, the ventricles are

Both repolarizing and relaxing

363

Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the ECG's

P wave

364

Abnormally slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the _______in an ECG tracing,

QRS complex

365

If there is a complex block between the SA node and the AV node. how would the ECG be affected?

The rate of the P waves will be faster than the rate of the QRS complexes

366

Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue, except

Increased hematocrit

367

Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the

Osmolarity of interstitial fluids

368

Averaged over a few heartbeats, venous return is ______cardiac output.

Equal to

369

Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?

Blood viscosity, Vessel diameter, Turbulence, and Vascular resistance

370

The main control of peripheral resistance by the vasomotor centers occurs in the

Arteriole

371

Turbulent blood flow occurs

When there are irregularities in the vessel wall, At high flow rates, and When there are sudden changes in vessel diameter

372

Which of the following would have the greater effect on vascular resistance?

A vessel 10 microns in diameter

373

In which of the following would the blood flow be highest?

A vessel 1.0 cm in diameter and 2 meters long

374

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance, except

Vasodilation

375

Blood pressure is highest here

Artery

376

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the _____pressure.

Pulse

377

As blood travels from arteries to veins

Pressure drops

378

If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be

Doubled

379

Blood pressure is lowest in the

Veins

380

If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be _____mm Hg.

100

381

Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in

Capillaries

382

Materials can move across capillary walls by

Diffusion, Filtration, and Reabsorption

383

The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the

Concentration of plasma proteins

384

Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space?

The net filtration pressure is usually zero.

385

The vascular pressure that declines from roughly 35mm Hg to about 18mm Hg is the

Capillary hydrostatic pressure

386

Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the

Arterioles dilate

387

Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries?

Decreased plasma albumen, Increased blood hydrostatic pressure, and Decreased tissue hydrostatic pressure

388

The continual movement of fluid through the interstitial spaces produced by capillary filtration serves which of the following functions?

Accelerates the distribution of nutrients and hormones, Assists the transport of insoluble substances that cannot enter the capillaries, Helps carry toxins and bacteria to cells of the immune system, and Flushed hormones and wastes from the interstitial spaces.

389

Edema is favored when

The plasma concentration of protein is reduced, Endothelial permeability goes up, and Capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated

390

Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors results in

Increased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system

391

Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased

Parasympathetic innervation

392

When will the blood pressure be greater?

When the peripheral vessels constricts

393

An increase in the rate of action potentials from baroreceptors will lead to

Both decrease in heart rate and decrease in blood pressure

394

When renin is released from the kidney

Angiotensin I is activated

395

Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except

Increased levels of ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide)

396

The hormone the produces cardiovascular effects similar to activation of the sympathetic nervous system is

Epinephrine

397

Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure, except

Release of renin

398

Which of the following are characteristics of cardiovascular regulation?

Blood flow through tissues meets the demand for oxygen, Blood flow changes to match tissue responses, Changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure, and Blood flow through tissues meet demand for nutrients

399

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased

Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart

400

In comparing a trained athlete to a non-athlete, which of these comparisons is FALSE?

Both heart weigh about the same

401

Which of the following would you expect to have the lowest resting heart rate?

A trained athlete

402

During exercise

Vasodilation occurs at the active skeletal muscles, Venous return increases, and Both cardiac output and stroke volume increases

403

Which of the following changes doesn't occur during exercise compared to rest?

Skin blood flow is lower

404

In response to hemorrhage, there is

Peripheral vasoconstriction, Increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart, and Mobilization of the venous reserve

405

Venoconstriction _______the amount of blood within the venous system, which _______the volume in the arterial and capillary systems.

Reduces; Increases

406

Homeostatic mechanisms in response to blood loss include all of the following, except

Inhibition of EPO secretion.

407

To defend blood volume against dehydration, the body

Accelerates reabsorption of water at the kidneys, Experiences a recall of interstitial fluids, Experiences an increase in the blood colloidal osmotic pressure, and Increases water intake.

408

ADH and aldosterone secretion are part of the body's long-term compensation for

A serious hemorrhage

409

After losing 25% of blood volume in a motorcycle accident, which of the following compensatory responses would occur?

Increased heart rate, Increase of contractility, Vasoconstriction of the body wall and Venoconstriction of skin vessels

410

Paul has a horrible chainsaw accident and cuts several major blood vessels in his head and neck. As a result of this injury, you would expect to observe all of the following, except

An increase in cardiac output

411

The superior portion of the heart where major blood vessels enter and exit is the ______

Base

412

The inferior point of the heart is called the ______

Apex

413

Most of the mass of the heart lies to the _______of the midline

Left

414

The left border of the heart is formed by the ______

Left ventricle and a small portion of the left atrium

415

The wall of the _____rests on the diaphragm.

Right ventricle

416

The muscle layer of the heart is the _______

Myocardium

417

The ______lines the chambers of the heart, covers the heart valves, and is continuous with the endothelium.

Endocardium

418

The heart is suspended within the ____in the mediastinum

Pericardial cavity

419

An equivalent term for epicardium is

Visceral pericardium

420

The space between the pleural cavities is called the

Mediastinum

421

The _____separates the two ventricles

Interventricular septum

422

The ______separates the two atria

Interatrial septum

423

Muscular ridges on the inner surface of the ventricles are called ________.

Trabeculae carneae

424

The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called ________.

Systole

425

The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called ________.

Diastole

426

As the heart rate slows, ________ gets longer.

Diastole

427

The ________ valve opens when left ventricular pressure exceeds aortic blood pressure.

Aortic

428

A slower-than-normal heart rate is called ________.

Bradycardia

429

A faster-than-normal heart rate is called ________.

Tachycardia

430

The ________ is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the beginning of systole.

End-diastolic volume

431

The ________ is the amount of blood in a ventricle after it has contracted and before it begins to refill.

End-diastolic volume

432

The amount of blood returning to the heart is the ________.

Venous return

433

The process of decrease in vessel diameter that occurs due to smooth muscle contraction is called ________.

Vasoconstriction

434

________ refers to all the factors that resist blood flow in the entire circulatory system.

Total peripheral resistance

435

________ are the only blood vessels whose walls are thin enough to permit blood-tissue exchange.

Capillaries

436

________ is the regulation of blood flow by local mechanisms within a capillary bed.

Autoregulation