AST Bonus Science Review Questions #2

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1

Where does the exchange of gases take place in the lung?

Alveoli

2

One of the distinguishing features of viruses is that they are:

Obligate

3

Which of the following would have a positive effect on wound healing?

Early ambulation

4

Which of the following is a hypertrophic scar formation?

Keloid

5

Where is cerebrospinal fluid formed?

Choroid plexuses

6

Which of the following arteries supplies blood top the brain?

Cartoid

7

The preoperative medication used to neutralize stomach acidity is:

Sodium citrate (Bi-Citra)

8

Which of the following are prokaryotic?

Bacteria

9

Which of the following is a passive drain that allows fluid to exit by capillary action?

Penrose

10

The colon ends at the:

Anal canal

11

Which of the following is a narcotic antagonist?

Naloxone Hydrochloride (Nacran)

12

The combining form meaning gland is:

Anden/o

13

Which of the following ligaments suspends the uterus?

Broad

14

What type of scar formation is considered Hypertrophic?

Keloid

15

Diuretics are used Intraoperatively to:

Decrease intracranial pressure

16

The type of surgical laser is determinate by its:

Active medium

17

What does the prefix "contra-" mean?

Against, opposite

18

The brain contains how any ventricles?

4

19

The anatomical structure that creates cerebrospinal fluid is the:

Choroid plexuses

20

Which salivary gland is drained by Stinson's duct?

Parotid

21

The type of fracture that is caused by forcing one bone upon another is called:

impacted

22

Irregular snapped bones that develop in the sutures of the skull are called:

Wormian

23

Which term refers to the end of a bone?

Epiphysis

24

Which of the following is the most inert in tissue?

Polypropylene

25

Immediately after receiving a medication, the surgical technologist in the scrub role should:

Label the edcation

26

What classification is a Bake surgical instrument?

Dilating

27

The wavelength of laser light:

Ranges from infrared to deep ultraviolet

28

Which laser should not be used in the presence of clear fluids?

Carbon dioxide

29

The abnormal enlargement of the male breast is called:

Gynecomastia

30

What is the classification of Surgilon?

Synthetic nonabsorbable multifilament

31

The inferior portion of the brain stem is the:

Medulla

32

In which surgical procedure would blunt needles be used:

Liver resection

33

The second cervical vertebra is called the:

Axis

34

The largest ball-and-socket joint is the:

Hip

35

What does the suffix -otomy mean?

Incision

36

The inner most layer of the eye is called the:

Retina

37

The colon begins at the:

Cecum

38

Which of the following makes up the inner tunic of the eye and receives images?

Retina

39

An example of a flat bone is the:

Cranial

40

Laser light travels:

In a straight line

41

What is the primary function of the islets of Langerhans?

Maintain blood sugar levels

42

1cc of solution is equivalent to:

1 mL

43

What does the abbreviation NPO mean?

Nothing by mouth

44

The prefix "hemi-" means:

Half

45

A solid granular mass that develops on the ovary after the release of an ovum is the:

Corpus lutenum

46

Muscle is attached to bone by:

Tendon

47

Which of the following is a monofilament nonabsorbable suture?

Prolene

48

The abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the underside of the pens is referred as:

Hypospadias

49

All of the medication inhibit blood coagulation, except:

Calcium

50

A patient with indirect and direct hernia has what type of hernia?

Pantaloon

51

What degrees is 89.6 Fahrenheit equal to in Celsius?

37

52

Which of the following is a large vein that drains the head?

Jugular

53

The smallest microorganism known are:

Viruses

54

Which of the following is the outer layer of the colon?

Serosa

55

Which of the following structures are found in the ventricles of the heart?

Papillary muscles

56

Microfibrillar collagen (Abilene) is a/an:

Hemostatic agent

57

A curved, tapered surgical needle is used most often on what type of tissue?

Intestine

58

What is the pharmacological action of hydrocortisone?

Anti-inflamatory

59

The passage of fluid and dissolved material into the thin membrane of a cell wall is:

Osmosis

60

The suffix the refers to suturing is:

-rrhaphy

61

Which combining form means eyelid?

Blepharo/o

62

Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria is known as:

Endocarditis

63

What portion of the back table is considered sterile once the sterile field has been establish?

Only the top

64

Which laser beam can travel through clear tissues without eating them?

Argon

65

The thyroid glands consist of right and left lobes joined by the:

Isthmus

66

The use of silk suture in urinary or biliary tract may result in:

Calculi

67

Which nerve is affected by carpal tunnel syndrome?

Median

68

Which division of the nervous system controls involuntary muscle contractions?

Autonomic

69

Which of the following glands regulates body temperature?

Hypothalamus

70

Which two drug classification are combined to produce neuroleptanalgesia?

Tranquilizer and narcotic

71

Removal of necrotic tissue is called:

Debridement

72

Cramplike pains in the lower leg caused by poor blood circulation to the lower leg muscles is called:

Claudication

73

The gram stain differentiates between:

Bacteria

74

When opening an enveloped-folded wrapper containing a sterile item the first flap is opened:

Away from self

75

Which nasal sinus is entered through an eyebrow incision?

Frontal

76

Craniosynostosis is a/an:

Premature closure of cranial sutures

77

Which of the following joints permits movement in only one plane?

Hinge

78

Hepatomegaly is:

Enlarged liver

79

What is the general rule for prepping a contaminated area?

Prep the surrounding area last and the contaminated area first, using a separate sponge

80

The kneecap is also known as the:

Patella

81

Topical administration of drugs includes all the following, except:

Parenteral

82

Which quadrant is the appendix located?

Right lower

83

Albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen are:

Plasma proteins

84

A projection on the surface of a bone located above a Cordele is called a:

Epicondyle

85

The peripheral nervous system contains:

Cranial and spinal nerves

86

The olecranon process is part of which bone?

Ulna

87

The vertebrae are examples of what type of bone?

Irregular

88

Which of the following medical terms refers to skin:

Integumentary

89

Retinal detachment is due to:

Leakage of liquid from vitreous cavity

90

Softening of the bone is called?

Osteomalacia

91

Which of the following refers to the ability of the body to maintain a normal internal environment?

Homeostasis

92

Which of the following is used to perform Schiller's test?

Lugol's solution

93

The roof of the mouth is called the:

Palate

94

Which chemical hemostatic agent must never be injected?

Thrombin

95

What pathological term refers to failure of the lower esophageal muscle to relax?

Achalasia

96

What does the suffix "-stasis" mean?

Stopping, staring still;

97

Which of the following terms refers to the level of honesty and integrity that every surgical technologist must uphold in the delivery of quality patient care?

Surgical conscience

98

The mucous membrane covering the eye is called the:

Conjuctiva

99

The small intestine begins at the:

Pylorus

100

What clotting factor does fibrinogen react with to form fibrin during the clotting process?

Thrombin

101

Streptokinase is used as a/an:

Fibrinolytic

102

Which of the following are eukaryotic?

Fungi

103

Which term refers to low blood volume?

Hypovolemia

104

Turning the hand so that the palm is upward is referred as:

Supination

105

The foramen magnum is an opening in which bone?

Occipital

106

The number of pairs of cranial nerves is:

12

107

Intestinal motility is called:

Peristalsis

108

Healthcare associated infections refers to:

Hospital acquired infections

109

Which of these local anesthetics is long acting?

Marcaine

110

Spherically-Shaped bacteria that occur in chains are referred to as:

Streptococci

111

Cephalosporins are a/an:

Antibiotic

112

Which of the following diseases is the result of invasion by a pathogen?

Pneumonia

113

Atheroma within the lumen of an artery is called:

Arteriosclerosis obliterans

114

What type of suture is used for tendon repair?

Polyethylene

115

Which of the following is a type of inflammatory bowel disease with chronic inflammation of the intestine?

Cohn's

116

What does the number 4 represent in the decimal 0.02457?

Thousandths

117

Stat means:

Immediately

118

What is the outermost layer of the skin?

Epidermis

119

Which syringe is the most appropriate for administering a local anesthetic?

Luer-lok

120

The bone that articulates with the distal tibia and fibula is the:

Talus

121

Which directional term refers to the middle of the body?

Medial

122

What is the correct order of the layers of the manages anterior to posterior?

Dura, arachnoid, pia

123

The structure connecting the spinal cord with the brain is the:

Brain stem

124

The invasion of pathogens within the tissues of a host is called:

Infection

125

Reduced blood flow to an area is:

Ischemia

126

The fraction 1/4 is equal to:

0.25

127

Which non-absorbable suture may be used in the presence of infection?

Polypropylene

128

The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood or tissues is called:

Sepsis

129

Endorphins, enkephalins, dopamine, and serotonin are example of:

Neurotransmitters

130

What cellular organelle serves as the site of protein synthesis?

Mitochondria

131

Microorganisms that grow best with a low level of oxygen supply are:

Microaerophiles

132

The number ox extrinsic ocular muscles that control eye movement is:

6

133

The cranial nerve that may be injured during carotid endarterectomy is the:

Hypoglossal (XII)

134

The term staphylococcus is the arrangement of:

Cocci in cluster

135

Viruses reproduce by:

Host cell metabolism

136

A clinical symptom of shock is:

Hypotension

137

The normal pouches of the large intestine are called:

Haustra

138

Which of the following bacteria requires oxygen?

Aerobic

139

What is the function of the Bartholin's glands?

Secrete lubrication

140

Which of the following absorbable sutures offers the longest duration of wound support?

Polydioxanone

141

Any instance in which a local anesthetic is injected to block or anesthetize a nerve is called:

Regional anesthesia

142

The body's first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens is:

Unbroken skin

143

Anticoagulants:

Decrease the clotting time

144

A method of anesthesia in which anesthetic medication is injected into the subarachnoid space is a/an:

Spinal block

145

Microorganisms that have the ability to adapt to an aerobic environment are:

Faculative

146

Bone grafts are usually taken from the:

Iliac crest

147

The fifth cranial nerve is also called the:

Trigeminal

148

The outer covering of the heart is called the:

Pericardium

149

Which of the following is the most common cause of a surgical site infection?

Patients endogenous flora

150

Which of the following is the staining characteristic of gram-negative organisms?

Stain red

151

The diencephalon is composed of the:

Thalamus and hypothalamus

152

Narcotic analgesics produce their effects by:

Minimizing pain perception

153

Which of the following is a life-treating allergic reaction?

Anaphylaxis

154

Before donning the sterile gown and gloves the surgical technologist must:

Perform a surgical hand and arm scrub

155

Which of the following can be achieved with the use of electrocautery?

Coagulation

156

Antibiotics given to prevent postoperative infection are considered:

Prophylatic

157

The largest part of the brain is the:

Cerebrum

158

The longest bone in the body is the:

Femur

159

What does the term hepat/o mean?

Liver

160

The folds of the lining in the stomach are:

Rugae

161

The function of the sphincter of Odd is to control the flow of:

Bile into the duodenum

162

Heparin is measured in:

units

163

Which agent is used to perform a chromotubation?

Methylene blue

164

The purpose of the Foley catheter is to:

Drain the bladder in order to avoid injury

165

The only non-articulating bone in the body is the:

Hyoid

166

Millimeter (mm) is a unit used to measure:

Length

167

What does the prefix inter- mean?

Between

168

What is known as the measure of force required to break a suture?

Tensile strength

169

The first cervical vertebra is called the:

Atlas

170

The suffix meaning blood condition is:

-emia

171

What organ of the body contains booth striated and smooth muscle?

Heart