AST Bonus Science Review questions #1

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1

What is the name of the condition when the foreskin of the penis cannot be retracted to normal position?

Phimosis

2

What shape are bacilli?

Rod-shaped

3

What type of stapling device is used to perform a low anterior anastomosis?

EEA (end-to-end anastomosis) stapler

4

Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for the "fight-or-flight" response?

Sympathetic

5

Surgical puncture of the joint space with a needle for synovial fluid drainage is called:

Arthrocentesis

6

Excessive secretion of growth hormones in adults causes:

Acromegaly

7

Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the:

Ovary

8

What term refers to voluntary skeletal muscle?

Striated

9

The suffix -pexy means?

Fixation, to put in place

10

Which part of the neuron conducts impulses away from the cell body?

Axon

11

The prefix pseudo- means?

False

12

Disruption of previously sutured tissue layers is:

Dehiscence

13

An inanimate object upon which pathogens may be conveyed is referred to as a:

Fomite

14

The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is:

Estrogen

15

Name the four muscles in the shoulder joint:

Infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularus, supraspinatus

16

A foreign substance that stimulates the production of antibodies is an:

Antigen

17

The suffix -lysis means?

Breakdown, destruction

18

Diatrizoate megulmine (Hypaque or Renografin) or lothalamute meglumine (conray) are examples of:

Contrast media

19

The small intestine is divided into how many sections?

3

20

Name the three sections of the small intestine:

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

21

Epidural anesthesia involves the administration of an anesthetic agent into the space surrounding the:

Dura mater

22

The electrical component of the heart that causes contraction of the ventricles is the:

Purkinje fibers

23

What is an action of antimicrobials?

Inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis

24

The anatomical landmark located at the proximal, lateral portion of the femoral shaft is the:

Greater trochanter

25

The primary stabilizing ligament of the knee which is attached to the posterior lateral:

Anterior cruciate

26

What type of bone are carpal bones?

Short

27

Carpal bones are found in what location of the body?

Hand

28

The prefix para- means?

Surrounding

29

A direct or indirect inguinal hernia indicates a tear in:

Transversalis fascia

30

The bending of the foot downward at the ankle joint is called:

Planter flexion

31

What section of vertebra have ribs attached to them?

Thoracic

32

What organ produces bile?

Liver

33

Cocci is what shape of bacteria?

spherical

34

Lack of control over urination is called:

Incontinence

35

What agent is used to perform an intraoperative cholangiogram?

Hypaque meglumine (Hypaque)

36

What does the thymus gland produce for the immune response?

T-cells

37

Which cranial nerve arises from the medulla and innervates the cervical, thoracic and abdominal regions?

X

38

The total number of vertebrae in the adult is:

26

39

The medical term for the chest is:

Thorax

40

Cholecystectomy is removal of the:

Gallbladder

41

Osteocytes are cells of the:

Bone

42

What is the medical term for the calf muscle?

Gastrocnemius

43

The suffix -malacia refers to:

Softening

44

For which tissue type would a cutting needle be contraindicated?

Intestine

45

What would effect normal wound healing?

Peripheral vascular disease

46

The nuclear material of the bacterial cell has been found to:

Exist as a single molecule of DNA

47

Escherichia coli is normally present inside what anatomical structure?

Colon

48

What nerve innervates the breast?

Anterior thorax

49

In which fossa is the cerebellum located?

Posterior

50

Omnipaque, a water soluble iodine-based contrast medium is used for:

Angiography

51

Tetanus and botulism are caused by organisms of the genus:

Bacillus

52

Name the three phases of first intention wound healing:

Lag (inflammatory response), proliferation and maturation

53

Ethibond is what type of suture?

Polyester fiber

54

Growth in a long bone occurs at the:

Epiphyseal plate

55

Air in the pleural cavity is:

Pneumothorax

56

The initial result of fertilization of gametes is a:

Zygote

57

The thorax is formed posteriorly by the:

Twelve thoracic vertabrae

58

The seventh cranial nerve is called the:

Facial

59

What does the term cephalalgia mean?

Headache

60

The prefix brady- means?

Slow

61

What does (parenteral route of drug administration) mean:

By injection, it includes intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous

62

Misalignment or deviation of the eye is:

Strabismus

63

Following administration, most of the drugs are converted to less active or inactive substances called:

Metabolites

64

Hemorrhaging that occurs between the skull and other meningeal covering is a:

Epidural hematoma

65

If a suture strand hangs or extends over the sterile table edge, the surgical technologist in the scrub role should:

Consider the suture contaminated and discard it

66

The term pharmacodynamics means:

Interaction between drugs and target cells

67

Commensalism is:

A relationship between two kinds of organisms that live together for mutual benefit

68

Hemostasis means to:

Arrest blood flow

69

What type of tissue is cartilage?

Connective

70

Heparin is classified as an:

Anticoagulant

71

Enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord is a:

Varicocele

72

Red blood cells are also known as:

Erythrocytes

73

The standard volume for an asepto syringe is approximately:

60cc

74

In what process does destruction of cells occur?

Sterilization

75

Diabetes mellitus places a patient at a higher risk for developing:

Retinopathy that results in blindness

76

The pectoral girdle is formed by the:

Scapula and clavical

77

Tubercle bacillus is found in the:

Respiratory tract

78

Does the hyoid bone articulate with another bone?

No

79

The adrenal cortex secretes:

Hormones

80

Rickettsial disease of humans is transmitted by:

Tick bite

81

Antibiotics are commonly administered intraoperatively by what route?

Intravenous

82

The scroll-like ridges on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity are called the:

Nasal conchae

83

What drug is added to a local anesthetic to decrease bleeding?

Epinephrine

84

Inherited deficiencies of coagulation in which bleeding occurs spontaneously after minor trauma is called:

Hemophilia

85

When an anesthetized patient's position is changed from trendelenburg to dorsal recumbent, he/she should be moved slowly to prevent:

Circulatory depression

86

The cranial nerve that innervates the larynx and pharynx is the:

Vagus nerve

87

Cefazolin (Anacef) is a:

Antibiotic

88

Ethrane, Nitrous oxide, and Fluothane are what?

Inhalation agents

89

What is atropine used for?

Resucitation, bradycardia (extremely low heart rate)

90

Bolsters are used with retention sutures to:

Prevent skin lacerations

91

Pulse oximetry involves the noninvasive measurement of what arterial blood saturation level?

Oxygen

92

Which bone of the skull is most superior?

Parietal

93

A dissociative drug that produces a short-term, trance-like state and hallucinations is:

Ketamine (Ketalar)

94

What is a commonly used type of anesthesia for obstetric and perineal procedures?

Epidural

95

The basic unit of length in the metric system is the:

Meter

96

The process by which leukocytes engulf and destroy bacteria is called:

Phagocytosis

97

The motor-sensory cranial nerve that innervates the tongue is the:

Hypoglossal nerve

98

Osteoarthritis is what type of disease?

Degenerative joint disease

99

Osteoporosis causes the bones to become:

weak and break easily

100

The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain of children is known as:

Hydrocephalus

101

A thick-walled, highly resistant body formed within a bacterial cell is a:

Spore

102

The C-shaped rings of the trachea are composed of:

Cartilage

103

An enzyme extracted from bovine blood that is used as a topical hemostatic agent is:

Thrombin

104

The 126 bones that compose the upper and lower extremities of the body is called the:

Appendicular skeleton

105

The absorption of a drug depends upon:

Dosage of drug, Route of administration, and Type of drug preparation

106

An angulated fracture of the distal radius is a:

Colles' fracture

107

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the sense of smell?

I

108

What is the purpose of the surgical hand scrub?

Reduce the microbial count

109

The end of a long bone is the:

Epiphysis

110

A combining form meaning kidney is:

Ren/o

111

The tall-like distal fibers of the spinal cord form the:

Caudu equina

112

What is an external mechanical method of hemostasis?

Pneumatic tourniquet

113

A dilation of the arterial wall is called:

Aneurysm

114

Organisms that are highly resistant to destruction and can survive a harsh environment are:

Spores

115

The suffix -rrhea means:

Flow, discharge

116

Where are the malleus, incus, and stapes located?

Middle ear

117

A miotic drug is:

Pilocarpine

118

Neurons that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain are called:

Afferent

119

A microscopic blood exam that estimates the percentages of each type of white cell within a sample is called:

Differential blood count

120

What suture is treated with a salt solution to decrease the rate of absorption?

Chromic gut

121

When the vertebral column develops an abnormal lateral curve, the condition is called:

Scoliosis

122

Can an opened sterile bottle of saline or water may be recapped carefully for later use?

No, once opened it must be used

123

Multiplication of a cell into separate cells is known as:

Binary fission

124

The rounded portion of the uterus superior to the uterine tubes is called the:

Fundus

125

The medication warfarin inhibits:

Blood coagulation

126

A drug used to reverse the effect of muscle relaxants is:

Prostigmin

127

The major difference between procaryotic cells and eucaryotic cells is:

Eucaryotic cells have a well-defined nuclear membrane whereas procaryotic cells have no true nucleus

128

The inner lining of the heart is called the:

Endocardium

129

What condition would exist if a patient had a white blood cell count of 12,500?

Infection

130

What is the function of hemoglobin?

Carry oxygen

131

What is an electrical recording of heart activity?

Electrocardiogram

132

The primary mode of airborne bacteria in the operating room is the:

Surgical team

133

The parotid gland is what type of gland?

Salivary gland

134

What virus is the precursor to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome?

HIV

135

Would retraction be an action of a stapling device?

No

136

The acromion process is a part of which bone?

Scapula

137

What term would mean the rupture of a wound with protrusion of abdominal contents?

Evisceration

138

The thick, crescent-shaped pads of cartilage that rest on the upper articular surface of the tibia are the:

Menisci

139

What portion of the sterile gown is considered non-sterile once it has been donned?

Axillary region

140

How many millimeters are in one meter?

1,000

141

The heel bone of the foot is called?

Calcaneus

142

The shaft of a bone is known as the:

Diaphysis

143

A virus that infects a bacterial cell is called a:

Bacteriophage

144

Another name for spongy bone is:

Cancelious

145

What suture size would be used for ophthalmic procedures?

8-0

146

The true ribs articulate anteriorly with the:

Sternum

147

The suffix -trophy means:

Development, nourishment

148

Which intension of healing occurs in a wound with a large loss of tissue?

Second

149

Which class of surgical wound has the highest rate of infection?

IV

150

Atrophy means:

Wasting away

151

What type of anaerobic bacteria is the cause of gas gangrene?

Clostridium perfringens

152

What is the pharmacological classification of Furosemide?

Diuretic

153

What suture has the highest tensile strength but poor handling qualities?

Stainless steel

154

Lasix is a:

Diuretic

155

The ability of a microbe to move by itself can be provided by:

Cilia

156

The most common side effect of drugs include________, ________, __________ .

Diarrhea and vomiting, Dizziness and drowsiness, Nausea and vomiting.

157

The arousal from general anesthesia after cessation of the anesthetic agent is called:

Emergence

158

What is another name for a stick tie?

Suture ligature

159

Childbirth labor may be induced by:

Oxytocin (Pitocin)

160

The finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are:

Fimbriae

161

What are the six RIGHTS?

Right patient, right drug, right dose, right route of administration, right time and frequency, right documentation and labeling.

162

What is a seminal tract accessory gland that surrounds the urethra?

The prostate

163

Agar is a:

Agent used to solidify growth media in the microbiology laboratory

164

What is the trade name for polyglactin 910?

Vicryl

165

The prefix that means above or upon is:

Epi-

166

A tendon is defined as a structure that attaches:

Muscle to bone

167

The upper portion of the stomach is called the:

Fundus

168

Which type of needle point would be selected for use on tendon or skin?

Cutting

169

The left coronary artery divides into the:

Anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries