Ethics section 2 final
What is meant by a right, natural right, and state of nature?
Right: confers upon its holder a kind of moral privilege to protect, utilize and have control over.
natural right: any basic or derived right that is the same for all, would already belong to each person in the state of nature.
state of nature: moral and social condition in which people would live before any gov't or civil society has been formed
What are Lockes 4 basic natural rights?
1. The right to life
2. the right to health
3. The right to liberty
4. The right of Property
Explain Lockes right to property.
ones rights or property include EVERYTHING one should be able to exercise control within domain of autonomy.
Fundamental and derived natural rights
rights based vs. principle based natural theory
rights based: treats rights as fundamental moral values from which all other moral principles and values are derived
principle:treat moral principles as primary and derive any moral right from those principles.
inalienable and alienable natural rights, with positve and negative rights
inalienable: is a right that cannot morally speacking be given up or transferred to another ie. right to liberty
alienable: easily transferable rights. ie property a gift
Positive: involve things others oght to do or provide for individulas - make calims on what others should do for us
negative: allow claims on what others should not do to us
Are Lockes four rights positive or negative rights?
Types of human rights?
Natural, civil, and manifesto
Civil rights vs. Natural rights
Civil: claims are you have by being in a society
natural: are rights you have as a human
Manifesto Rights, and why do some say they are not rights?
Rights that are meant to emphasize the moral importance of pressing human needs and concerns.
problems:For there to be an obligation there must be some means by which that obligation can be met. and who is responsible to fulfill these "rights"?
Explain the rights and incompleteness concern with rights
notion of rights has been taken beyond what can actually be justified.
need better balance of right claims and moral responsibility.
One cannot simply focus soley on rights, one will forget morality.
Explain the rights holder problem
problem is directly tied to the basis upon which we build the concept of rights
right holders must be autonomous
autonomy for young children and "defective" human beings, denying them rights that they once or will have.
What is a virtue vs. a vice?
vice: specific character trait, like dishonesty and selfishness, oppisite of virtues.
virtues: character traits like loyalty, complassion, generosity, moral values in and of themselves.
What is virtue ethics?
the right thing to do is what a virtues character will do. Specific character trait.
Virtue ethics vs. ethical theories
hand out of virtue ethics
virtue ethics is based on what you are, differnce being doing and being
What are the 4 Critiques of Principle based Ethics?
1. Principle Based Ethics are Incomplete
2. Principle based ethics over emphasize impartiality
3. Principle based ethics distort our picture of Human nature
4. Principle based ethics distort our picture of human nature
What is meant by virtue ethics emphasizing the primacy of character, character motivation and there being many right choices
primacy of character says that our primary moral resp. is to develop a virtuous personal character full of virtues.
Character motivation attributes a person's motivation for moral actions directly to ones character, not a duty or obligation.
Many rights allows for different choices to count as equally right in the same situation.Different virtuous people might choose differently.