Ethics section 1 final
Relationship between Natural function and natural value.
natural function - natural function that aims to achieve some end or goal that has natural value ex. heart pumping blood.
Natural value - some desirable end or goal toward which nature aims.
ex. although the heart may malfunction its natural value is to pump it through the body.
thinkers who uphelp natural law theory.
Catholic church, biologists/revolutionary thinkers and stoics
Thomas Aquinas relationship with God, external law, natural law, scripture and divine law.
external-gods own reasoning nature
natural- universal rightousness
human law- use God given reason to determine what is in accordance with natural law
divine law- revealed in scripture
Principle of Forefiture
deliberately threatening another persons life an attacker ceases to be an innocent. attacker no longer has the right to life.
why can one not life to protect lives on innocent according to natural law?
should value what supports social interaction, such as trust and respect, which implies moral obligation to keep promises and to tell the truth.
DDE what is it?
Doctrine of Double Effects
when an act will lead to both good and bad, one must apply all conditions and all conditions must be met to carry on with the action
What are the four conditions of DDE?
1. The Moral principle condition
2. The means-end condition
3. The right intention condition
4. The proportionality condition
What is the moral Principle Condition
the act in itself cannot violate moral principle
What is the means to an end condition?
the bad effect cannot be the means by which one achieves the good effect
dependent effects vs. independent effects
independent: Occur when neither for the effects depends upon or causes other
dependent: Occur when one effect can only be achieved via the other effect
What is the right intention condition?
One must intend to achieve only the good effect, but not the bad effect.
What is the Proportionality condition ?
the good effect must be at least as great as the bad.
Points in favor of natural law
Criticisms of natural law
1. Foundations Problem
2. Vagueness Problem
3. Problems with the DDE
Thomas Aquinas met Foundations Problems
Natural order is the creation of a rational and good God.
What criticisms can none the less be leveled against Thomas' version.