Hesi Review A&P

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1

abduction

movement of bone away from midline

2

adduction

movement of bone toward the midlin

3

circumduction

movement at distal end of body part in a circle(continous sequence of flexion, abduction, extendiona and adduction)

4

Actin

Found in thin filaments

5

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Exciatory on neuromuscular junction out inhibitory at others

6

Alimentary Canal

The digestive tube that consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestine, rectum, and anus

7

Anatomic Position

The position of the body where the body is erect , the feet are slightly apart , the head is held high, and the plams of the hand are facing forward.

8

Anterior

View facing forward

9

Antagonist

A muscle that opposes the agonist at a joint

10

Appendicular Skeleton

The part of the skeleton that includes girdles and the limbs
* the upper portion consists fo the pectoral or shoulder girrdle, the clavicle and the scapula, and the upper extremitity. The bones of the arm are the humerous, the radiusa dn the ulna, the carpals (wrist bones) , the metacarpals and the phalanges.
*Lower portion is made up of the pelvic girdle or the os coxae. Each of the os coxae consists of a fused ilium, ischium, and the pubis. Bones of the lower extremeity include the femur, and the tibia and fibula, the tarsals, and the metatarsals and the phalanges.

11

Arterioles

the smallest type of arteries

12

Arteries

carry blood away from the heart
*The walls of the arteries are thick and elastic, and carry blood under high pressure

13

Axial Skeleton

* The 28 bones of the skull. These include 14 facial and 14 cranial bones.
* 33 bones of the vertebral column
* Bone of the thorax and sternum
* 12 pairs of ribs

14

Axons

one thin, typically long process that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body (sends output) and releases neurotransmitters from synaptic end bulbs at the ends of axon terminals

15

Bolus

A ball of food that is formed after the food is broken down by the theeth and saliva

16

Capillaries

the smallest of vessels and where the exchanges take place between the blood and the surronding tissues, echanging water, nutrients, and waste products.

17

Cell

The basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs

18

Cerebellum

responsible for muscle cordiantion
* Cordinates complex , skilled movements, regulates posture and balance .
* may play role in cognition and language processing

19

Cerebrum

* divided into right and left hemisphers
* each hemisphere receives sensory input from the controls muscles opposite side og body

20

Chyme

The soupy substance that is created by the stomach churning and mixing the bolus food mass.

21

Cortisol

a hormone released from the adrenal cortex reduces inflamation, raises blood sugar levels and inhibits the release of histamine.

22

dendrites

Transmit the impulses towrads the cell body

23

Dermis

The layer of skin that consists of the underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels , nerve endings, and the associated skin structure. THe dermis rests on the subcutaneos tissue that connects the skin to superficial muscles.

24

Distal

Farther from the point of attachemnt or origin

25

Endocrine system

assits the nervous system in homeostasis and plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation. These two systems meet at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

26

Epidermis

The layer of skin that consists of the outermost protective layer of dead kerantinzed epithelial cells.
Form outer to inner layers
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosm, and the inner most
Stratum Germinativum ( include stratum basale and stratum spinosum)

27

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells, modified for transport of oxygen

28

Estrogen

Produced by the follicle initiates the preperation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy.

29

External Respiration

The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli

30

Extension

increase in angle , usually returning back to anatomical position

31

Flexion

decrease in angle

32

Hempoiesis

blood cell formation

33

Histology

the study of tissue

34

Hormones

are chemical messengers that control growth , differentiationm and metabolism of specific target cells.

35

Inferior

View fom below

36

Infundibulum

the stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

37

Internal Respiration

The exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells

38

Keratin

a strong protein that make up the hair and nails .

39

Lateral

toward the side of the body

40

Leukocytes

white blood cells

41

Medial

View towards the midline

42

Medulla Oblongata

Controls many vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.

43

Meiosis

The special cell division that takes place in the gonads(the ovaries and testes). In the process of meiosis, the chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23, so when the egg and the sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.

44

Melanin

Protein pigment that protects againts radiation from the sun

45

Mitosis

Serves all other functions of cell division , excluding meiosis
*Prophase- chromatin condenses into chromosomes , nuclear envelope disappears
*Metaphase- Chromosome align at the equatorial plate
*Anaphase- sister chromatids , seperate centromeres divide
*telophase-Two daughter Cells

46

Muscular System

Muscles produce movement by contracting to reponse th nervous stimulation. Muscle contraction results from sliding together of actin and myosin filaments within the muscle cell or fiber. Each muscle cell consits of myofibrils, which in turn are made up of smaller units called sarcomers. Calcium and ATP must be present fro muscle to contract.

47

myofibrils

composed of 3 types of proteins( name proteins included in these 3 groups and describe their functional groups and describe their functional roles in sliding filament model of muscle contraction)

48

Myosin

found in thick filaments

49

Nuroglia

Nervous system cells that have supportive roles do not receive or conduct nerve impulses

50

Neuron

Functional unit of nervous system, has the capacity to produce action potentials recieve and conduct nerve impulses

51

Neurotransmitters

released from axon terminals, diffuse across synaptic cleft, and bind receptors on target cell; may be exciatory or inhibittory

52

Osteoblasts

cells that form the bone

53

Osteoclast

cells that dissolve the bone

54

Osteocytes

Formed from osteoblasts and are found in the lacuna

55

Osteon

single functional unit of compact bone

56

Pituitary Gland

Nicknamed the master gland. It is attache dto the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum. The pituitary gland has two major portions : The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. Hormones released from the posterior are oxytocin, and ADH and antidiuretic hormone.

57

Platelets

An element of blood that is active in the process of blood clotting

58

PNS (Pherphereal nervous system)

consists of the nerves that transmit infomation to the CNS

59

Posterior

View toward the back

60

Progesterone

A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum, which further stimulates development of the endometrium.

61

Proximal

Closer to the point of attachment or origin

62

Sarcomeres

Small units that make up myofibrils, which make up each muscle cell.

63

Superior

toward the top of the head

64

Steroid hormones

enter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus.

65

Non Steroid Hormones

Some are protein hormones , Mant protein hormones remain at the cell surface and act as a second messenger, usually substance called (AMP). Most hormones affect cell activity by altering the rate of protein sysnthesis.

66

Endocrine Glands

although widely distributed are grouped together as a system because the main function of each gland is the production of hormones . Other organs such as stomach, small intestines, and kidneys produce hormones as well.

67

Synergist

A muscle that assists the movement of a joint

68

Vein

carry blood toward the heart and capillaries.
* walls of veins are thin and less elactic than those of arteries, and they carry blood under low pressure.

69

Voluntary Muscles

Muscle that is usually under conscious control: skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscles work in pairs

70

Epithelial Tissue

Covers body surface

71

Connective Tissue

Framework of the body providing support and structure for the organs . Includes tissues such as adipose (loose CT) tendons, ligaments (dense CT), cartilage, bone, blood and lymph, contains cells, fibers and ground substance
*binds together, supports, strengthens other tissues (loose and dense)
*Protects and insulates internal organs (adipose)
* Compartmetalizes structures such as skletal muscle
*major transport system(blood)
*Stored Energy reserve(adipose fat tissue)
* Main site of immune response (lymph and white blood cells)

72

Muscle Tissue

generates physical force needed to make body structures move , have the ability to contract or shorten.
*Muscle fibers use ATP to generate force
*3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

73

Muscle Tissue ... Skeletal

Usually attached to bones of skeleton, voluntary and striated( alternating light/dark bands on stained fibers).
*attached to bones by tendons
*Muscle contaction helps keep the body warm
*Skeletal muscles continously contract to maintain posture

74

Muscle Tissue ..... Cardiac

Forms most of wall of heart, involuntary branched, striated and contains intercalated discs( with gap junctions and desmosomes)

75

Muscle Tissue .... Smooth

Located in walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, airways, digestive, urinary, reproductive) involuntary , and nonstriated

76

Nervous Tissue

Is composed of neurons and connective cells that are referred to as neuroglia
Repsonds by generating nerve impulses that control tissues help maintain homeostasis
Senses Internal and external changes with sensory receptors processing processing, interperting, and remembering those changes with effectors

77

Sudoriferous Glands

exocrine gland that secretes sweat into hair follicles or onto the skin's surface to lower body temperature

78

Sebacous Glands

Exorine gland connected to hair follicles that secrete an oily substance (sebum) to prevent hair and skin from drying out. Oil is produced by holocrine secretion, in whcih whole cells of the gland are part of the secretion . These gland are susubtable to becoming clogged and attracting bacteria, particulary during adolescense.

79

Ceruminous Glands

Modified sweat glands in external auditory canal that secrete ear wax to impede entrance of foreign particles

80

Goblet cells

Unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucus to help lubricate and protect lining of GI tract and help trap foreign particles in respitory tract so they can be moved back out by cilia

81

Integumentary System

Included skin, hair and nails

82

Skin

covers body, protects underlying tissues and contains accessory structures that function in protection from microbes and sun, thermoregulationm and tactile senses

83

Arrector Pili Muscle

smooth muscle near hiar that is stimulated by autonomic nervous system to contract under conditions of stress( such as cold or fright)

84

Meissner's Corpuscles

encapsulated nerve ending that sense light touch

85

Pacinian Corpuscle

encapsulated nerve ending that detects deep pressure

86

What mineral is responsible for muslce contraction?

Calcium

87

In which of the following locations woukd the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs be found?

Pelcic Cavity

88

What is the basic unit of life and teh building block of tissues and organs?

Cell

89

Which type of cell division takes place in the gonads?

Meiosis

90

In what area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum corneum?

Heel of the foot

91

Simple Cubodial Epithelium

*Location: Liver, thyroid, mammary, salivary, and other glands; most kidneys tubules; bronchioles
*Function: Absorption and secretion ; production of protective mucous coat; movement of respitory mucus.

92

Stratified Squamous epithelium

*Locations: epidermis, palms, and soles are especially keratinized
* Functions: resists abrasion and penetration by pathogenic organism; retards water loss through skin.

93

Stratified Columnar epithelium

a cellular shape that is significantly taller than it is wide.
* inner lining of stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterus, and uterine tubes, some kidney tubules .
* Functions : Absorption , secretion of mucus and other products; movement of egg and embryo in uterine tube

94

Eccrine glands

Sweat glands widely distributed over entire body , but are especially abundant on the palms, soles and forehead, Regulate body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin.

95

Apocrine Glands

Sweat gland or sudoriferous glands. Occur in anal region, axilla, Aereola, and in mature males the beard area. This secretion contains bits of cytoplasm fro the secreting cell. This cells debris attracts bacteria , and the presence of the bacteria on the skin is body odor.

96

Endocrine Glands

A ductless gland that secretes hormones into the bllodstream
Ex. Thyroid, and adrenal gland

97

Skin aids in maintaing the calcium and phosphate levels of the body by participating in the production of what?

Vitamin D

98

Epiphysis

Rounded end of a long bone

99

Diaphysis

Shaft of a long bone

100

Metaphysis

wider portion of a long bone, adjacent to the epiphyseal plate

101

Perichondrium

A layer of fibrous connective tissue cavering the surface of hyline or elastic cartilage

102

Motor (Efferent) neurons

Transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS toward effector organs such as muscle, glands, and digestive organs

103

Sensory (Afferent) neurons

Carry Information from receptors to posterior horn fo the spinal cord or brainstem, transmit nerve impulses toward the CNS

104

What is the function of aldosterone?

It conserves sodium in the body

105

What are teh functional units of kidneys?

Nephrons

106

Supination

movement of forearm to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly

107

Pronation

movement of forearm to turn palm posteriorly or inferiorly

108

Central Nervous System

consists of brain and spinal cord

109

Peripheral Nervous sysytem

Consists of the cranila nerves and spinal nerves, whcih contain both sensory and motor fibers

110

Sympathetic Division

"Fight or Flight" stress and emergency responses

111

Parasympathetic division

"rest and digest" maintenance of homestasis usually dominates

112

Norepinephrine

regulates mood, dreaming, awakening from sleep

113

dopamine

regulates skeletal muscle tone

114

serotonin

regulates mood, temperature, and induction of sleep

115

Going from Superior to inferior , the sequence of the vertebral column is?

Cervial 7 , thoracic 12 , lumbar 5 , sacral 5 (fused to form the saccrum) , and coccyx

116

Motor Neuron

A neuron that transmittes signals from the cental nervous system to effector(muscle or gland cell) its axons is an efferent nerve fiber

117

Interneuron

A neuron that is contained entirely in the central nervous system and , in the path of signal conduction, lies anywhere between an afferent pathway and an efferent pathway.

118

Parathyroid Hormome regulates

Calcium

119

Where are the pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors located ?

Cartoid Body

120

Chemoreceptors

Are the group of sensory receptors responsible for sense of taste and smell

121

Nociceptors

General term for pain receptors

122

Photoreceptors

respond to light stimulus

123

Exteroceptors

Respond to external stimulus
Touch, taste and smell

124

Thermoreceptors

Detect change in temperature

125

Bile is secreted in which organ?

Small Intestines

126

What is the role of progesteron in the female reproductive system?

Stimulates the development of the endometrium

127

Why are skeletal muscles also called voluntary muscles?

They are under conscious control

128

All actions fo the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over whcich of the following?

Neurons

129

Motor or _______ neurons transmit nerve impulses over which of the following?

Efferent

130

What are chemical messengers that control growth, differention , and the metabolism of specific target cells called?

Hormones

131

What are Tropic hormones?

Somatotropin
Follicle- stimulating hormone
Thyroid- stimulating hormone

132

Monocytes

become Macrophages

133

Lymphocytes

Important in immune response

134

Neutrophils

phagocytize microorgansim

135

The heart has a intrinsic beat that is intiated by which of the following?

Sinoatrial Node

136

Vasodialation and vasoconstriction results from which of the following?

Relaxtion and contraction of smooth muscle in the arterial wall.

137

Which of the following are the blood vessels where exchanges take place between blood and the cells of the body?

Capillary

138

In order for inhalation to occur what must happen?

Contraction of the diaphragm, which enlarges the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs.

139

Most of the carbon dioxode in the blood does which of the following?

It is converted to bicarbonate ions by the carbonic anhydrase within re dblood cells.

140

How does the trachea reamin open like a hollow tube?

Supporting cartilaginous rings keep it open

141

All the nutrients that enter the hepatic portal vein are routed where for decontamination?

Liver

142

Whate are the two functions of the male and female sex organs?

Producton of gamates, and hormones.

143

In men , spermatoza develop within the _______ of each testies?

Seminiferous tubules

144

Testicular activity is under the control of which hormones?

FSH, and LH

145

During pregnancy , what organ produces the hormones that maintain the endometrium and prepare the breast for milk production?

Placenta

146

Simple spinal reflexes

Nerve impulses travel through the spinla cord only and do not reach the brain.

147

Heart

Double pump that send blood to the lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary circuit to the rest of the body through the systemoc circuit.
* Blood is received by the atria and is pumped into circulation by teh ventricles.
*Blood is supplied to the to the heart muscles (myocardium) by the coronary arteries. Blood drains from the myocardium directly into the right atrium through the coronary sinus.

148

Valves

Tricuspid on the right side, Bicuspid on the left side.
Semilunar valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.

149

Superior and Inferior Vena Cavae

The large veins that empty into the right atrium of the heart

150

Inhalation

requires the contraction of the diphragm to enlarge the thoracic cavity and draw air into the lungs.

151

Exhalation

is a passive process during which the lungs recoil as the repitory muscle relax and teh thorax decreases in size.

152

Pancreas

contributes water to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach

153

Large intestines

reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food. Here is also abundant bacteria,and intestional flora.