Hesi Review A&P
movement of bone away from midline
movement of bone toward the midlin
movement at distal end of body part in a circle(continous sequence of flexion, abduction, extendiona and adduction)
Found in thin filaments
Exciatory on neuromuscular junction out inhibitory at others
The digestive tube that consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestine, rectum, and anus
The position of the body where the body is erect , the feet are slightly apart , the head is held high, and the plams of the hand are facing forward.
View facing forward
A muscle that opposes the agonist at a joint
The part of the skeleton that includes girdles and the limbs
* the upper portion consists fo the pectoral or shoulder girrdle, the clavicle and the scapula, and the upper extremitity. The bones of the arm are the humerous, the radiusa dn the ulna, the carpals (wrist bones) , the metacarpals and the phalanges.
*Lower portion is made up of the pelvic girdle or the os coxae. Each of the os coxae consists of a fused ilium, ischium, and the pubis. Bones of the lower extremeity include the femur, and the tibia and fibula, the tarsals, and the metatarsals and the phalanges.
the smallest type of arteries
carry blood away from the heart
*The walls of the arteries are thick and elastic, and carry blood under high pressure
* The 28 bones of the skull. These include 14 facial and 14 cranial bones.
* 33 bones of the vertebral column
* Bone of the thorax and sternum
* 12 pairs of ribs
one thin, typically long process that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body (sends output) and releases neurotransmitters from synaptic end bulbs at the ends of axon terminals
A ball of food that is formed after the food is broken down by the theeth and saliva
the smallest of vessels and where the exchanges take place between the blood and the surronding tissues, echanging water, nutrients, and waste products.
The basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs
responsible for muscle cordiantion
* Cordinates complex , skilled movements, regulates posture and balance .
* may play role in cognition and language processing
* divided into right and left hemisphers
* each hemisphere receives sensory input from the controls muscles opposite side og body
The soupy substance that is created by the stomach churning and mixing the bolus food mass.
a hormone released from the adrenal cortex reduces inflamation, raises blood sugar levels and inhibits the release of histamine.
Transmit the impulses towrads the cell body
The layer of skin that consists of the underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels , nerve endings, and the associated skin structure. THe dermis rests on the subcutaneos tissue that connects the skin to superficial muscles.
Farther from the point of attachemnt or origin
assits the nervous system in homeostasis and plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation. These two systems meet at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
The layer of skin that consists of the outermost protective layer of dead kerantinzed epithelial cells.
Form outer to inner layers
Stratum granulosm, and the inner most
Stratum Germinativum ( include stratum basale and stratum spinosum)
Red blood cells, modified for transport of oxygen
Produced by the follicle initiates the preperation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy.
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli
increase in angle , usually returning back to anatomical position
decrease in angle
blood cell formation
the study of tissue
are chemical messengers that control growth , differentiationm and metabolism of specific target cells.
View fom below
the stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
The exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells
a strong protein that make up the hair and nails .
toward the side of the body
white blood cells
View towards the midline
Controls many vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.
The special cell division that takes place in the gonads(the ovaries and testes). In the process of meiosis, the chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23, so when the egg and the sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.
Protein pigment that protects againts radiation from the sun
Serves all other functions of cell division , excluding meiosis
*Prophase- chromatin condenses into chromosomes , nuclear envelope disappears
*Metaphase- Chromosome align at the equatorial plate
*Anaphase- sister chromatids , seperate centromeres divide
*telophase-Two daughter Cells
Muscles produce movement by contracting to reponse th nervous stimulation. Muscle contraction results from sliding together of actin and myosin filaments within the muscle cell or fiber. Each muscle cell consits of myofibrils, which in turn are made up of smaller units called sarcomers. Calcium and ATP must be present fro muscle to contract.
composed of 3 types of proteins( name proteins included in these 3 groups and describe their functional groups and describe their functional roles in sliding filament model of muscle contraction)
found in thick filaments
Nervous system cells that have supportive roles do not receive or conduct nerve impulses
Functional unit of nervous system, has the capacity to produce action potentials recieve and conduct nerve impulses
released from axon terminals, diffuse across synaptic cleft, and bind receptors on target cell; may be exciatory or inhibittory
cells that form the bone
cells that dissolve the bone
Formed from osteoblasts and are found in the lacuna
single functional unit of compact bone
Nicknamed the master gland. It is attache dto the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum. The pituitary gland has two major portions : The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. Hormones released from the posterior are oxytocin, and ADH and antidiuretic hormone.
An element of blood that is active in the process of blood clotting
PNS (Pherphereal nervous system)
consists of the nerves that transmit infomation to the CNS
View toward the back
A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum, which further stimulates development of the endometrium.
Closer to the point of attachment or origin
Small units that make up myofibrils, which make up each muscle cell.
toward the top of the head
enter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus.
Non Steroid Hormones
Some are protein hormones , Mant protein hormones remain at the cell surface and act as a second messenger, usually substance called (AMP). Most hormones affect cell activity by altering the rate of protein sysnthesis.
although widely distributed are grouped together as a system because the main function of each gland is the production of hormones . Other organs such as stomach, small intestines, and kidneys produce hormones as well.
A muscle that assists the movement of a joint
carry blood toward the heart and capillaries.
* walls of veins are thin and less elactic than those of arteries, and they carry blood under low pressure.
Muscle that is usually under conscious control: skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscles work in pairs
Covers body surface
Framework of the body providing support and structure for the organs . Includes tissues such as adipose (loose CT) tendons, ligaments (dense CT), cartilage, bone, blood and lymph, contains cells, fibers and ground substance
*binds together, supports, strengthens other tissues (loose and dense)
*Protects and insulates internal organs (adipose)
* Compartmetalizes structures such as skletal muscle
*major transport system(blood)
*Stored Energy reserve(adipose fat tissue)
* Main site of immune response (lymph and white blood cells)
generates physical force needed to make body structures move , have the ability to contract or shorten.
*Muscle fibers use ATP to generate force
*3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Muscle Tissue ... Skeletal
Usually attached to bones of skeleton, voluntary and striated( alternating light/dark bands on stained fibers).
*attached to bones by tendons
*Muscle contaction helps keep the body warm
*Skeletal muscles continously contract to maintain posture
Muscle Tissue ..... Cardiac
Forms most of wall of heart, involuntary branched, striated and contains intercalated discs( with gap junctions and desmosomes)
Muscle Tissue .... Smooth
Located in walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, airways, digestive, urinary, reproductive) involuntary , and nonstriated
Is composed of neurons and connective cells that are referred to as neuroglia
Repsonds by generating nerve impulses that control tissues help maintain homeostasis
Senses Internal and external changes with sensory receptors processing processing, interperting, and remembering those changes with effectors
exocrine gland that secretes sweat into hair follicles or onto the skin's surface to lower body temperature
Exorine gland connected to hair follicles that secrete an oily substance (sebum) to prevent hair and skin from drying out. Oil is produced by holocrine secretion, in whcih whole cells of the gland are part of the secretion . These gland are susubtable to becoming clogged and attracting bacteria, particulary during adolescense.
Modified sweat glands in external auditory canal that secrete ear wax to impede entrance of foreign particles
Unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucus to help lubricate and protect lining of GI tract and help trap foreign particles in respitory tract so they can be moved back out by cilia
Included skin, hair and nails
covers body, protects underlying tissues and contains accessory structures that function in protection from microbes and sun, thermoregulationm and tactile senses
Arrector Pili Muscle
smooth muscle near hiar that is stimulated by autonomic nervous system to contract under conditions of stress( such as cold or fright)
encapsulated nerve ending that sense light touch
encapsulated nerve ending that detects deep pressure
What mineral is responsible for muslce contraction?
In which of the following locations woukd the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs be found?
What is the basic unit of life and teh building block of tissues and organs?
Which type of cell division takes place in the gonads?
In what area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum corneum?
Heel of the foot
Simple Cubodial Epithelium
*Location: Liver, thyroid, mammary, salivary, and other glands; most kidneys tubules; bronchioles
*Function: Absorption and secretion ; production of protective mucous coat; movement of respitory mucus.
Stratified Squamous epithelium
*Locations: epidermis, palms, and soles are especially keratinized
* Functions: resists abrasion and penetration by pathogenic organism; retards water loss through skin.
Stratified Columnar epithelium
a cellular shape that is significantly taller than it is wide.
* inner lining of stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterus, and uterine tubes, some kidney tubules .
* Functions : Absorption , secretion of mucus and other products; movement of egg and embryo in uterine tube
Sweat glands widely distributed over entire body , but are especially abundant on the palms, soles and forehead, Regulate body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin.
Sweat gland or sudoriferous glands. Occur in anal region, axilla, Aereola, and in mature males the beard area. This secretion contains bits of cytoplasm fro the secreting cell. This cells debris attracts bacteria , and the presence of the bacteria on the skin is body odor.
A ductless gland that secretes hormones into the bllodstream
Ex. Thyroid, and adrenal gland
Skin aids in maintaing the calcium and phosphate levels of the body by participating in the production of what?
Rounded end of a long bone
Shaft of a long bone
wider portion of a long bone, adjacent to the epiphyseal plate
A layer of fibrous connective tissue cavering the surface of hyline or elastic cartilage
Motor (Efferent) neurons
Transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS toward effector organs such as muscle, glands, and digestive organs
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
Carry Information from receptors to posterior horn fo the spinal cord or brainstem, transmit nerve impulses toward the CNS
What is the function of aldosterone?
It conserves sodium in the body
What are teh functional units of kidneys?
movement of forearm to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly
movement of forearm to turn palm posteriorly or inferiorly
Central Nervous System
consists of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous sysytem
Consists of the cranila nerves and spinal nerves, whcih contain both sensory and motor fibers
"Fight or Flight" stress and emergency responses
"rest and digest" maintenance of homestasis usually dominates
regulates mood, dreaming, awakening from sleep
regulates skeletal muscle tone
regulates mood, temperature, and induction of sleep
Going from Superior to inferior , the sequence of the vertebral column is?
Cervial 7 , thoracic 12 , lumbar 5 , sacral 5 (fused to form the saccrum) , and coccyx
A neuron that transmittes signals from the cental nervous system to effector(muscle or gland cell) its axons is an efferent nerve fiber
A neuron that is contained entirely in the central nervous system and , in the path of signal conduction, lies anywhere between an afferent pathway and an efferent pathway.
Parathyroid Hormome regulates
Where are the pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors located ?
Are the group of sensory receptors responsible for sense of taste and smell
General term for pain receptors
respond to light stimulus
Respond to external stimulus
Touch, taste and smell
Detect change in temperature
Bile is secreted in which organ?
What is the role of progesteron in the female reproductive system?
Stimulates the development of the endometrium
Why are skeletal muscles also called voluntary muscles?
They are under conscious control
All actions fo the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over whcich of the following?
Motor or _______ neurons transmit nerve impulses over which of the following?
What are chemical messengers that control growth, differention , and the metabolism of specific target cells called?
What are Tropic hormones?
Follicle- stimulating hormone
Thyroid- stimulating hormone
Important in immune response
The heart has a intrinsic beat that is intiated by which of the following?
Vasodialation and vasoconstriction results from which of the following?
Relaxtion and contraction of smooth muscle in the arterial wall.
Which of the following are the blood vessels where exchanges take place between blood and the cells of the body?
In order for inhalation to occur what must happen?
Contraction of the diaphragm, which enlarges the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs.
Most of the carbon dioxode in the blood does which of the following?
It is converted to bicarbonate ions by the carbonic anhydrase within re dblood cells.
How does the trachea reamin open like a hollow tube?
Supporting cartilaginous rings keep it open
All the nutrients that enter the hepatic portal vein are routed where for decontamination?
Whate are the two functions of the male and female sex organs?
Producton of gamates, and hormones.
In men , spermatoza develop within the _______ of each testies?
Testicular activity is under the control of which hormones?
FSH, and LH
During pregnancy , what organ produces the hormones that maintain the endometrium and prepare the breast for milk production?
Simple spinal reflexes
Nerve impulses travel through the spinla cord only and do not reach the brain.
Double pump that send blood to the lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary circuit to the rest of the body through the systemoc circuit.
* Blood is received by the atria and is pumped into circulation by teh ventricles.
*Blood is supplied to the to the heart muscles (myocardium) by the coronary arteries. Blood drains from the myocardium directly into the right atrium through the coronary sinus.
Tricuspid on the right side, Bicuspid on the left side.
Semilunar valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.
Superior and Inferior Vena Cavae
The large veins that empty into the right atrium of the heart
requires the contraction of the diphragm to enlarge the thoracic cavity and draw air into the lungs.
is a passive process during which the lungs recoil as the repitory muscle relax and teh thorax decreases in size.
contributes water to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach
reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food. Here is also abundant bacteria,and intestional flora.