EXS 452: Physical Activity In Disease Prevention

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1

An increase in treadmill time of ____ on a maximal graded exercise test is associated with a reduction of ____% in mortality.

An increase in treadmill time of 1 minute on a maximal graded exercise test is associated with a reduction of 7.5% in mortality.

2

What are the benefits of physical activity?

Strong Evidence

Lower Risk Of:

Strong Evidence:

Lower Risk Of:

Coronary Heart Disease

Early Death

Stroke

High Blood Pressure

Adverse Blood Lipid Profile

Type 2 Diabetes

Metabolic Syndrome

3

What are the benefits of physical activity?

Strong Evidence

Prevention of:

weight gain

falling

4

What are the benefits of physical activity?

Strong Evidence

Mental

Better Cognitive Function

Reduced Depression

5

What are the benefits of physical activity?

Strong Evidence

Physiological

Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake

Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness

6

What are the benefits of physical activity?

Strong Evidence

Cancer prevention:

Colon Cancer
Breast Cancer

7

What are the benefits of physical activity?

Strong to moderate evidence

Physiological

Lower risk of hip fractures

Reduced Abdominal Obesity

Better functional health (for older adults)

Weight maintenance after weight loss

Increased bone density

8

What are the benefits of physical activity?
Strong to moderate evidence

Cancer

Lower risk of endometrial cancer

Lower risk of lung cancer

9

What are the benefits of physical activity?
Strong to moderate evidence

Mental

Better Sleep Quality

10

Two Definitions of Physical Fitness

A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity.

An outcome that can be attained through exercising at the frequency, intensity, and length of time prescribed by the ACSM.

11

Physical Activity definition

Any body movement that results in the burning of calories.

12

Definition of Exercise

A subcategory of physical activity; it is a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive.

13

Health Related Fitness Categories

Morphological

Muscular

Metabolic

Motor

Cardiorespiratory

14

How much physical activity is needed for health?

Aerobic exercise for a minimum of 20 minutes/day on 3 days or more a week.

15

Define Moderate Physical Activity

3-6 METS (working metabolic rate/resting metabolic rate) which is equivalent to brisk walking at 3 or 4 mph for healthy adults.

16

What is the moderate target heart rate zone?

55% - 70% maximum heart rate

17

Activities considered moderate physical activity:

loading & unloading a car, mopping, standing, sweeping outside, washing windows.

18

ACSM/AHA Recommendation Aerobic Exercise

To promote & maintain health, all healthy adults should engage in moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 minutes/day on 5 days/week or vigorous intensity aerobic activity for a minimum of 20 min/day on 3 days/week

19

True or false:

Combinations of moderate and vigorous physical activity can be performed to meet ACSM/AHA recommendations

True

20

True or false:

Accumulation is an acceptable way to meet guidelines for physical activity.

10 minutes in the morning, noon, and evening.

True

21

ACSM/AHA Resistance Training Recommendations

Every adult should engage in activities that maintain or increase muscular strength or endurance a minimum of two days a week.

22

ACSM/AHA Resistance Training Volume Recommendations

It is recommended that 8-10 exercises be performed on two or more non-consecutive days each week using the major muscles of the body.

23

True/False

For most people, greater health benefits can be attained by engaging in vigorous physical activity or longer duration.

True

24

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Managing & preventing weight gain:

Engage in approximately 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity most days of the week while not exceeding caloric intake requirements.

25

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
To sustain weight loss:

Engage in approximately 60-90 minutes of daily moderate intensity activity most days of the week while not exceeding caloric intake requirements.

26

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
To Achieve Physical Fitness by including:

Cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise or calisthenics for muscle strength & endurance.

27

By year 2015, ___% of populations will be overweight or obese.

By year 2015, 75% of populations will be overweight or obese.

28

Physical Activity is the "Best Buy" in public health because:

targets disease prevention

target diseases maintained

Affects the diseases with the largest economic cost

29

____ million people have CHD

12.6

30

____million suffer a heart attack annually

1.1 million suffer a heart attack annually

31

____ million have diabetes

17 million

32

Current PA Guidelines

Adults should engage in 2 hrs & 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise or 1hour & 15 minutes of vigorous intensity aerobic exercise; combinations are satisfactory.

33

Current PA Guidelines on accumulation

Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably spread through out the day.

34

Current PA Guidelines:

Additional Benefits

Additional health benefits are provided by increasing to 5 hours a week of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity, or 2 hours & 30 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity.

35

Current PA Guidelines:

Resistance training

Adults should perform muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups at least 2 days a week.

36

Recommendations for children

Aerobic activity should make up most of a child's 60 or more minutes of physical activity each day. They should include vigorous intensity aerobic exercise 3 days a week. Include muscle strengthening exercise 3 days a week like push-ups, or gymnastics.

37

% of children ages 6-11 years old engaging in physical activity

42%

38

% of adolescents engaging in physical activity

8%

39

% of adults aged 20-59 engaging in physical activity

3.5%

40

Nearly ____million adults are obese

50 million (27%)

41

____million are either overweight or obese

108 million (61%)

42

______ new cases of colon cancer each year

107,000

43

______ suffer hip fractures each year

300,000

44

______ million have high blood pressure

50 million

45

Economic Consequences of Inactivity

In 2000, OW and Obesity - $117 billion

46

Obese individuals spend ___% more on health services and ___% more on medication

Obese individuals spend 36% more on health services and 77% more on medication.

47

Heart Disease costs how much annually?

$183 billion

48

Cancer costs how much annually?

$157 billion

49

Diabetes costs how much annually?

$100 billion

50

Arthritis costs how much annually?

$65 billion

51

Medicare & Medicaid spend _____ annually on five major chronic conditions

Medicare & Medicaid spend $84 billion annually on five major chronic conditions